The local context: video, performance, and action art and film in the Neue Galerie

The Video Archive of the Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst

The international context: milestones in the international development of video art

Four prepared pianos, mechanized sound objects, several record-player and audio-tape installations, twelve modified television sets, a freshly slaughtered ox head, etc. form the expansive environment. Although video technology is yet to be employed, Paik’s first-ever presentation of his manipulated televisions, distorting the image of the screened television program, is today thought to mark the birth of video art.

With the film Sun in Your Head, Vostell translates the principle of dé-coll/age to the moving image. Because there is no video technology available in 1963, the cameraman Edo Jansen films distorted television images from a screen. The film is reedited in 1967 and copied onto a video format. The first screening takes place at the Yam Festival, May 19, 1963, held on a farm in South Brunswick, New Jersey, and organized by the Smolin Gallery. The second screening is part of the happening 9 Nein Dé-coll/agen on September 14, 1963, in cooperation with Galerie Parnass.

In Understanding Media, his best-known work, McLuhan proposes that the medium itself needs to be examined and not the subject matter it conveys, encapsulated in the motto: The medium is the message. It is not the content conveyed by a medium that has an impact on society but rather the very characteristics of the medium.

Nam June Paik is regarded as the first buyer of the Sony Portapak, the first portable video recorder. The first video work, which has not survived, is a recording of Pope Paul VI’s visit to New York on October 4, 1965, which is shown on the same evening at Café au GoGo. In 1986, Siegfried Zielinski demonstrated that Paik actually must have used the Sony CV-2000/TCV-2010 video camera, a combination of recorder, camera, and monitor, because the Portapak was in fact first introduced to the US market in 1967.

In 1963, Andy Warhol obtains his first film camera. In 1965, Tape Recording magazine invites Warhol to experiment with some of the first video cameras available on the US market: a Norelco slant-track video recorder, a remote-control television camera with a zoom lens, and a Concord MTC 11 handheld video camera with a zoom lens. With this equipment, he makes two thirty-minute tapes of Edie Sedgwick. He incorporates the tapes of Sedgwick into Outer and Inner Space (1965), his first double-projection film.

This festival of electronic and interactive performances and happenings was developed in cooperation between artists and engineers from Bell Labs and led to the founding of E.A.T. Experiments in Art and Technology. Initiators are Robert Rauschenberg and Billy Klüver. The main technological element in the performances is the electronic modulation system TEEM, which is made up of transportable electronic units without any cables, which are remote-controlled. The nine evenings of performances feature John Cage, Lucinda Childs, Merce Cunningham, Öyvind Fahlström, Alex Hay, Deborah Hay, Steve Paxton, Robert Rauschenberg, David Tudor, and Robert Whitman.

The “Experimental Television Workshop” KQED-TV is directed by Brice Howard and Paul Kaufman and established with a Rockefeller Foundation Grant. In 1969, it is renamed the National Center for Experiments in Television (NCET) and funded by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting and the National Endowment for the Arts. The program ends in 1976.

WGBH-TV inaugurates an artist-in-residence program with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. “What’s Happening, Mr. Silver?” is an experimental collage/ information series in which several dozen inputs are mixed live and at random.

Joseph Beuys


1968, video, b&w, sound, 21:36 min, V_NG_8

Flesh to White to Black to Flesh

1968, video, b&w, sound, 51:06 min, V_NG_83

Manipulating a Fluorescent Tube

1968, video, b&w, sound, 1:02:15 min, V_NG_81

Wall / Floor Positions

1968, video, b&w, sound, 59:00 min, V_NG_84

Ant Farm, founded in San Francisco in 1968, is a group of visionary architects who are also active as video, performance, and installation artists. Founding members are Doug Michels, Chip Lord, and Curtis Schreier. Their role models are avant-garde architects like Richard Buckminster Fuller, Paolo Soleri, and the British architect team Archigram. Ant Farm disbands after a serious fire in their studio in 1978.

Cybernetic Serendipity is the first large international exhibition of electronic, cybernetic, and computer art. The principal idea is to examine the role of cybernetics in contemporary arts. The exhibition includes robots, poetry, music, and painting machines, as well as all sorts of works where chance is an important ingredient.

Flyer for Intermedia ’68, 1968, courtesy of BAM Hamm Archiv

The New York State Council on the Arts (NYSCA) funds experimental media artists as part of Intermedia 68, a theater workshop at the Brooklyn Academy of Music. Projects include environmental video performances, film projections, and videotapes by Aldo Tambellini, Nam June Paik, Les Levine, Carolee Schneemann, Terry Riley, Dick Higgins, Ken Dewey, USCO, and others.

The history of video in Japan begins with a 1968 event called Say Something Now, I’m Looking for Something to Say, organized in Tokyo by the critic Yoshiaki Tono with the artist Katsuhiro Yamaguchi. Yamaguchi, long interested in new media, covered his paintings in the early 1950s with lenses that turned them into refracted images that shifted as the viewer moved. He applies the same treatment to video monitors.

The television gallery is one of the most important artist projects of the late 1960s and early 1970s. Underpinning the television exhibitions LAND ART and IDENTIFICATIONS, created in cooperation with Ursula Wevers and broadcast on the West German public television station ARD in 1969 and 1970 respectively, is the idea of moving away from presenting a conventional art program and producing instead artworks conceived and realized especially for showing on television. Because the conception of the television gallery ultimately runs counter to the objective of the mass medium itself, namely to address a wide audience, the cooperation breaks down after just two projects. The gallery is closed in 1970.

Black Gate Cologne is considered to be the first television show realized by visual artists. In a WDR studio (at the invitation of Werner Höfer and Wibke von Bonin), several cameras are used to record a live event with audience participation. The image and sound material is electronically condensed, with a 23-minute version broadcast on WDR on January 26, 1969.

Christian Boltanski

L’homme qui tousse

1969, video, color, sound, 01:50 min, V_NG_11_I

Maurizio Kagel

Ludwig van

1969, video, b&w, sound, 1:02:16 min, V_NG_56_(1/2)

Maurizio Kagel

Ludwig van

1969, video, b&w, sound, 0:25:47 min, V_NG_56_(2/2)

1969, video, b&w, sound, 1:01:58 min, V_NG_82

Time Delay Room #7, performed by Dan Graham in the cafeteria of the Antwerp International Cultural Center (ICC) on May 23, 1975, at the opening of the exhibition Dan Graham. V.I.D.E.O. Environments and Actions, © ICC Archive, M HKA Antwerp

The ICC is the first institution of contemporary art in Flanders. It is founded in the afterbirth of museum contestation and closes in 1998 when museums of contemporary art become an established fact. During the seventies and the early eighties, the ICC is an intermediary between a progressive art praxis and the ill-at-ease public, as well as an alternative platform for the production and the presentation of recent conceptual art, installations, video, happening and performance. The I.C.C. in its initial period can be seen as the immediate precursor of M HKA.

This seminal exhibition heralds a burgeoning development that comes to be known as “video art.” The first exhibition in the United States devoted to video, TV as a Creative Medium signals radical changes, inspiring a generation of artists to take up video and provoking commentary that extends well beyond the channels of art discourse. Among the twelve artists in the show are Nam June Paik, Charlotte Moorman, Paul Ryan, Ira Schneider, Frank Gillette, and Eric Siegel.

Paul Vogt, Dieter Honisch, Gerhard von Graevenitz, and Willfried Litke (director of the video studio) in the video studio at Museum Folkwang, 1975, © Museum Folkwang

By setting up an editing studio, the Folkwang in Essen becomes the first German museum to also be a location for producing video. Equipped with modern technology, the studio is also designed to serve research purposes: Cooperating with artists, scientists, and educators, with tertiary, culture, and research institutions, the studio investigates the possibilities and limits of electromagnetic image recording, or videotape. The idea is to lay the groundwork for introducing video technology into the museum itself. The studio closed in 1994. Today, the productions are digitized and processed. The exhibition Video Vision. Studiojahre 1969–1994 (2012–13) is the first presentation of the collection and recalls the beginnings of the video studio and the media experiments of the 1970s and 80s. The selection shows video works by artists produced in the Folkwang studio. A second presentation follows in 2013, Video Studio II. Licht im Schatten.

Produced by WGBH-TV in Boston, The Medium Is the Medium is one of the earliest and most prescient examples of the collaboration between public television and the emerging field of video art in the US. WGBH commissions artists—Allan Kaprow, Nam June Paik, Otto Piene, James Seawright, Thomas Tadlock, and Aldo Tambellini—to create original works for broadcast television. Their works explore the parameters of the new medium, from image processing and interactivity to video dance and sculpture. Produced by Fred Barzyk, Anne Gresser, and Pat Marx.

The Raindance Foundation is founded in 1969 by Frank Gillette, Paul Ryan, Michael Shamberg, Louis Jaffe, and Marco Vassi. It is a self-described “alternate culture think-tank” that embraces video as an alternative form of cultural communication. Influenced by the communication theories of McLuhan and Buckminster Fuller, the collective produces a databank of tapes and writings that explore the relations between cybernetics, media, and ecology. From 1970 to 1974, Raindance publishes Radical Software. In 1976, Raindance members Schneider and Korot edit Video Art: An Anthology. The original Raindance collective disperses in the mid-1970s.

Videofreex, founded in 1969 by David Cort, Mary Curtis Ratcliff, and Parry Teasdale, is a pioneering video collective that uses the Sony Portapak for countercultural video projects from 1969 to 1978. In 1972, they launch the first pirate television station, Lanesville TV, using a transmitter given to them by Abbie Hoffman, to turn television into a more democratic medium. The Videofreex Archive, containing more than 1,500 original tapes, is housed at the Video Data Bank.

Just a few days after the official opening of the Neue Galerie in March 1970, Timm Ulrichs undertakes a “standpoint definition.” As part of a presentation of the collection, the artist uses interdisciplinary performance actions to survey the newly arranged rooms. The surveying processes begin with a “trigonometric circle” drawn by Ulrichs, which is engraved in a floor tile near the entrance. Ulrichs also shows packing crates for pieces of art and plasters walls and pictures with photographic wallpaper that depicts exactly what it covers over. A box with photos and snippets of conversation between visitors is immured into the museum.

In March 1970, Wolfgang Becker launches film evenings. The Neue Galerie is used every Saturday evening as a non-commercial cinema. Becker increasingly tries to organize the program around authors or themes in order to create cycles running over a longer period, and he publishes pamphlets with explanatory texts. Only 16mm films are shown. Besides artistic and underground films, surveys of the works of different artists are also featured. Works by, among others: Wim Wenders, Werner Schröter and Hans-Peter Kochenrath, Birgit and Wilhelm Hein, Malcom Legrice, Arnold Daidalos Wande, Hartwig Töwe, Keith Sonnier.

Catalogue cover Puyk, 1970, ed. by Neue Galerie im alten Kurhaus, Aachen

June 13 to July 7, 1970. In 1966 the word PUYK appears on the walls of buildings in Karlsruhe. A group of high-school students is behind the action. An oppositional group of art students from Karlsruhe’s art academy takes up the word and uses it as a title for actions criticizing society. Rolf Busam, Werner Kroener, Helmut Schweizer, Manfred Weihe, and Sylvia Wieczorek belong to the group until 1968. The protagonists for the Aachen exhibition are Rolf Busam, Helmut Schweizer, and Manfred Weihe. Three weekends are devoted to putting on actions and performances, while a demonstration is held. The final result is not considered as important as the process leading to it. A catalogue is published for the Exhibition.

Robert Filliou and Wolfgang Becker at the opening of the Robert Filliou exhibition at the Neue Galerie im Alten Kurhaus, Aachen, and the founding event of COMMEMOR on July 11, 1970, photo: Sepp Linckens/ Zentralarchiv Aachener Zeitung/ Aachener Nachrichten, © Estate of Robert Filliou

July to December, 1970. With “Commemor – Comission mixte d’échange de monuments aux morts” Robert Filliou wishes to form a committee to organize and carry out in the midterm an exchange of war monuments in the region of Aachen, Maastricht, and Liège. He presents the project in the form of possible manifestations in the three cities. While the idea of international reconciliation between the people is at the center of “Commemor,” visualized and circulated in large-format photo collages, questionnaires, and actions, the presentation in the Neue Galerie also includes works of visual poetry. An exhibition catalogue is published.

The Aachen Film Club presents films by amateur filmmakers, including Hans Peters’s Tödliches Spiel and Werner Schmitz’s Das Frühstück. Wolfgang Becker summarizes the evening: “While the films shown were well made and constructed, they did not match today’s expectations of modern cinematic art. […] Film amateurs are the born ‘underground’ filmmakers and possess the appropriate equipment to strike out on new paths.” (from the A.V.Z., July 7, 1970)

Total theater at the Neue Galerie im Alten Kurhaus, Aachen, 1970, photo: Sepp Linckens/ Zentralarchiv Aachener Zeitung/ Aachener Nachrichten

As part of a total theater evening, one-minute pieces are performed based on scores by Fluxus artists. The evening aims to show that at its extremities visual art comes into contact with theater. One example: Hugo Jung (founding director of the gynecology and obstetrics department at the Aachen University Clinic and member of the board of the Verein der Freunde) is asked to step onto the stage. Wolfgang Becker invites the women in the audience to speak with Prof. Jung publicly about a possible pregnancy.

Invitation to/announcement of the exhibition Wolf Vostell – Elektronisch at the Neue Galerie im Alten Kurhaus, Aachen, 1970, Archiv des Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, Aachen

October 15 to November 27, 1970. The exhibition is staged in cooperation with the RWTH Aachen, following Vostell’s proposal to found in Aachen a “laboratory to research intermedia phenomena between art and science.” Supported by students, electronic environments and objects by the artist that involve audience participation are installed in the Neue Galerie. The installation Heuschrecken, which uses 20 monitors, attracts particular attention; its acquisition marks the beginning of the Aachen video collection. Parallel to the exhibition, Vostell shows a survey of his films from 1963 to 1969. A catalogue is published for the exhibition.

Wolf Vostell, Heuschrecken, 1969/70, in the exhibition Wolf Vostell – Elektronisch, Neue Galerie im Alten Kurhaus, Aachen, 1970, © The Wolf Vostell Estate

End of 1970. During the exhibition, the collector Peter Ludwig purchases the electronic environment Heuschrecken (version 2) in 1969–70. The visual object is connected to 20 television sets and a video camera. The faces of visitors are recorded hourly and these are then shown later on the monitors phase-shifted. The viewers thus become part of the image. The acquisition marks the beginning of the Neue Galerie’s video collection. With this step, the Neue Galerie is the first museum in NRW to collect video art.

Beethoven’s music room from the film Ludwig van by Mauricio Kagel at the Neue Galerie im Alten Kurhaus, Aachen, accompanying the exhibition Beethoven! 1770–1970, 1970, photo: Sepp Linckens/ Zentralarchiv Aachener Zeitung/ Aachener Nachrichten, © Pamela Kagel

December 3, 1970 to January 15, 1971. On the composer’s two-hundredth birthday, Becker collects documents associated with the Beethoven cult. Props from a fictive Beethoven House are the setting for the exhibition; these were created by different artists for the film Ludwig van (1969) by the composer Mauricio Kagel. Employing point-of-view shots, the film shows Beethoven visiting Bonn and being guided through all the rooms of his house, arranged by Joseph Beuys, Ursula Burghardt, Robert Filliou, Mauricio Kagel, Dieter Rot, and Stefan Wewerka. Other cult objects, Fluxus concerts, and rock music (“Roll over Beethoven,” featuring Kraftwerk) complement the main focus. A catalogue is published for the Exhibition.

Catalogue cover Castelli-Sonnabend Videotapes and Films, ed. by Castelli-Sonnabend Tapes and Films, Inc., Volume I, 1974

The unique anthology of American artist films and videotapes made in the 1960s and 70s is assembled for distribution by the pioneering New York art dealers Leo Castelli and Ileana Sonnabend in the early 1970s. Distribution continued until the early 1990s. Some of the videotapes and films are now distributed by Electronic Arts Intermix, New York, and Video Data Bank, Chicago. Since 1998, the Whitney Museum has been re-assembling “Castelli-Sonnabend Tapes and Films” as a special collection within the museum’s permanent collection. This ongoing project includes the conservation of many works that have not been shown since the 1970s.

The Museum begins to formally acquire video works in the late 1970s, led by former MoMA associate curator Barbara London. To date, the Museum has over 1,600 video works—an astounding collection that documents the history of this medium used in artistic practice from its beginning. In 2007, the first media conservator arrives at MoMA. In 2011, the Museum undertakes a large-scale digitization effort focusing on the analogue videos. During the digitization project, each analogue video work in MoMA’s collection is migrated to a digital video file.

People’s Video Theater, founded by Elliot Glass and Ken Marsh in New York, is an alternative video journalism collective emphasizing community video and political issues. PVT’s use of video as social feedback typically involves carrying Portapaks in the streets of New York City, where they conduct video polls and document public actions. People participating in street tapings would be invited to their video “theater” to watch and discuss the tapes, taking advantage of a kind of immediacy impossible with film.

The first international exhibition to feature video installations is the 10th Tokyo Biennale, with the theme “Between Man and Matter,” organized by the art critic Yusuke Nakahara in 1970. It depicts the discursive engagements between Mono-ha artists like Jiro Takamatsu and Kishio Suga and Western artists like Klaus Rinke and Christo.

Russel Connor curates the first video art exhibition at a US museum. The works featured are by Frank Gillette (Amps, Volts and Watts), Ted Kraynik (Video Luminar #4) , Les Levine (The Dealer), Eugene Mattingly (Fred Helix), Nam June Paik with Charlotte Moorman (TV Bra for Living Sculpture), Nam June Paik (The 9/23 Experiment, Still Life and Embryo for Wall to Wall TV), John Reilly and Rudi Stern (Innertube), Paul Ryan (Yes/No and Ego Me Absolvo), Ira Schneider (Random Interlace), Eric Siegel (Body, Mind and Video), Aldo Tambellini (Some More Beginnings, Black Spiral and Black TV), Jud Yalkut (Electronic Moon No. 2), USCO/Intermedia (Wave Forms and Tube Stills), Videofreex (Freex Out), and Joe Weintraub (AC/TV).

The Anthology Film Archive opens on November 30, 1970, at Joseph Papp’s Public Theater. The archive evolved from roots and visions that go back to the early 1960s, when Jonas Mekas, the director of the Film-Makers’ Cinematheque, a showcase for avant-garde films, dreamed of establishing a permanent home where the growing number of new independent/avant-garde films could be shown on a regular basis. The Archive emerges out of the Film-Makers’ Cooperative founded in 1962 with Emile de Antonio, an association of independent experimental filmmakers that the Film-Makers’ Cinematheque is connected to as a forum for screening experimental films since 1964.

The Lijnbaancentrum (1970–1984) is an exhibition space of the Rotterdam Arts Foundation (RKS) in the center of Rotterdam. It presents exhibitions on art, image, and mass culture that are designed to appeal to a large and diverse audience. The moving image is seen as an indispensable medium for this purpose; therefore, the Lijnbaancentrum is equipped at its launch with a special studio with modern video equipment for recording and editing both monochrome and the recently introduced color video.

The historic video magazine Radical Software is started by Beryl Korot, Phyllis Gershuny, and Ira Schneider and first appears in spring 1970, soon after low-cost portable video equipment becomes available to artists and other potential video makers. Radical Software is an important voice of the American video community in the early 70s, the only periodical devoted exclusively to independent video and video art at a time when those subjects are still being invented. Eleven issues are published from 1970 to 1974.

Invitation to/announcement of the film evenings at the Neue Galerie im Alten Kurhaus, Aachen, from July to November 1971, Archiv des Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, Aachen

Featured artists include: Franz Zwartjes, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Günther Rücker, Thomas Mauch, Helmut Costard, Bernd Schwamm, Georg Morse, Werner Herzog, and Ottomar Domnick. Also shown is the series Dada und Surrealismus 1911–1933.

According to an article in the Aachener Tagespresse, the Neue Galerie loans a slot machine. After slotting in 50 pfennig, the machine plays a 16mm sound film with a maximum length of three minutes. Thirty-six films can be selected from. Up until now the machine has been used in the entertainment industry and its store of films are oddities for amusement. These films are to be replaced by artistic films, making accessible a representative selection of creative films by contemporary visual artists.

April 1–27, 1971. The Neue Galerie opens the studio, where smaller groups of works that are experimental in character are shown. The studio is designed to allow for the short-run staging of performances. It is open for all experiments that have difficulty finding a suitable setting. The studio’s opening presentation is Stefan Wewerka’s new work group. Lecktschuringholl (Lecture Hall) is made up of 35 chairs, a lectern, and a blackboard, all at a 30° angle, along with scores of drawings and the film September 1970.

Invitation to/announcement of the exhibition Nancy Graves, Skulpturen, Zeichnungen, Filme at the Neue Galerie im Alten Kurhaus, Aachen, 1971, Archiv des Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, Aachen

September 25 to November 20, 1971. The group exhibition Klischee + Antiklischee (1970) in the Neue Galerie is followed by Nancy Graves’s first European solo exhibition, Skulpturen, Zeichnungen, Filme. Along with sculptures and drawings, the exhibition screens the films 200 Standaufnahmen in 60 Sekunden (1970), Goulimine (1970), and Izy Boukir (1971). An exhibition catalogue is published.

October 8–31, 1971. These seventy black-and-white photographs are documents from a specific social and professional milieu, inserted into an artistic context, along with their certificate of origin by Jacques Charlier, who was an expeditionary designer for the Technical Service of the province of Liège (STP) between 1957 and 1978. They are assembled nine by nine in eight panels, and are flanked with a certificate written on the Provincial Administration’s letterhead. Charlier confirms that these photographs he has been removing from their context since 1964 have been part of the documentation of the Provincial Technical Service’s project offices and that they were carried out by André Bertrand, the Service’s head Operator.

John Baldessari

Folding Hat

1971, video, b&w, sound, 29:54 min, V_NG_3

Peter Campus

Double Vision

1971, video, b&w, sound, 14:36 min, V_NG_23

1971, video, b&w, sound, 36:08 min, V_NG_37

Galerie Yellow Now makes closed-circuit TV available to artists during the month of November, putting a working team at their disposal. The gallery invites artists to send proposals for information processes in general or for spreading information using CCTV, or both. Proposals are submitted by artists including Christian Boltanski, Barbara und Michael Leisgen, Jacques-Louis Nyst, Jacques Charlier, and Jacques Lizène.

Cover of the exhibition catalogue Prospect 71, Projection, ed. by Kunsthalle Düsseldorf, 1971

The exhibition sees itself as an international preview of art shown in avant-garde galleries. The media featured are photography, slides, film, and video. With: Vito Acconci, Joseph Beuys, and Keith Sonnier. Galleries involved include: Art Intermedia (Cologne), Leo Castelli (New York), and Schum (Düsseldorf).

Steina and Woody Vasulka open The Kitchen, an alternative center for video art, music, and performance, located in the former kitchen of the Mercer Art Center in Greenwich Village. The Vasulkas are themselves regarded as pioneers of video art.

The founding of the Video-Forum is the basis for the oldest public video collection in Germany. One of its main missions is to conserve the moving image and keep it accessible for the public by adapting to technical developments. The holdings of the collection are digitized for this purpose and filed, cataloged, and tagged. In 1972, the Videothek n.b.k. is founded, the first video library of its kind in West Germany and West Berlin.

EAI is founded in 1971 as one of the first nonprofit organizations in the United States dedicated to the support of video as an art form. In 1972, EAI opens an editing/post-production facility in response to the need for a creative workspace and equipment access for artists. In 1973, the Artists’ Videotape Distribution Service is founded to answer a need for a new paradigm for the dissemination of artists’ video works, apart from the conventional gallery system. In 1986, the EAI Preservation Program begins to facilitate the restoration and archiving of works in the EAI collection.

Together with Ursula Wevers, Gerry Schum opens a video gallery in Düsseldorf. Up until 1973, they produce and distribute video editions of works by artists from the international avant-garde. The gallery closes in 1973. Undated newsletter put out by the gallery: So far the gallery has transferred films by Beuys, Nauman, Roehr, and Serra into the video system. These tapes are also available in the original film version. Further conversions of films are planned. Some films, for example by Buren, Darboven, Nauman, Rinke, made by the artists without the intention of being converted into the video system, can be screened in the gallery using 16mm, Super 8, and 8mm projectors.

The “New American Filmmakers Series” is curated by David Bienstock with the support of Woody and Steina Vasulka. It is the first major videotape exhibition in a New York City museum. With: Eric Siegl, Dimitri Devyatkin, Richard Felciano, Nam June Paik, and Woody and Steina Vasulka.

1971, the museum director purchases video works by Klaus Rinke and Ulrich Rückriem and from Gerry Schum and Ursula Wevers the first two television exhibitions (produced however on 16mm film and later transferred to video). In the late 1970s, further video works are acquired from the Galerie Projektion in Cologne, now operated by Wevers alone. The focus is on works by American artists, including Vito Acconci, Peter Campus, Richard Serra, and Keith Sonnier. Today the museum has almost the whole palette of works produced and distributed by the two video pioneers Schum and Wevers.

The Artists’ Television Workshop is established through the efforts of Jackie Cassen, Russell Connor, and Nam June Paik, with an initial grant from the New York State Council on the Arts to support experimental projects by independents. New York City mandates public access as part of its cable franchise.

Film class at the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf, photo: Peter Holtfreter

The film class is founded in 1971 as an extension of the theater class, but already becomes an independent group in 1972. The first lecturer is the Danish director Povleson, a Super 8 camera is purchased, and a budget of 7,000 DM is made available. In March 1978, the film class is dissolved per academy senate decree on the grounds that the quality of the artistic works is too low. In the same year, Nam June Paik is appointed chair of sculpture and goes on to teach video for the next seventeen years.

In 1971, David Ross becomes the world’s first video curator at the Everson Museum of Art in Syracuse, New York, and for three years does pioneering curatorial work.

Invitation to/announcement of the studio exhibition with artists from the Liège gallery Yellow Now, 1972, Archiv des Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, Aachen

January 14 to February 8, 1972. Emphasis is placed on performance and small audio cassettes. The main artists of the Liège School are featured, and many of their video works were then added to the collection. Featuring Barlice International, Robert de Boeck, Brussels; Alain Denis, Verviers; Alain D’Hooghe, Liège; Jacques Lizene, Liège; Jacques-Louis Nyst, Liège; Jean-Pierre Ransonnnet, Liège; Maurice Roquet, Brussels; Schwind Foundation, Richard Tialans, Liège; Guy Vandeloise, Liège.

Press article from the Aachener Volkszeitung, October 5, 1972, Archiv des Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, Aachen

Featured artists include: YELLOW NOW, Harry Langdon, Mack Sennett, Harold Lloyd, Stan Laurel, Fatty Arbuckle, Sergei Eisenstein, Marx Brothers, Jean Cocteau, Luis Bunuel, Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau, Artur Robinson, Fritz Lang. In addition, thematic film series are also featured, such as Bresson – Asket unter den Regisseuren, Der neue amerikanische Künstlerfilm, Düsseldorfer Filmemacher, Lateinamerika im Film, Oskar Fischinger und der Underground-Film der amerikanischen Westküste, and Das neue Polen in seinen Filmen. With Der russische Revolutionsfilm, the Film der Jugend e.V. holds its first cycle in the Neue Galerie. This program, conceived as a form of educational outreach, is given a permanent slot on Thursdays. Emerging from an initiative started by youths, the association is operating on the scale of a municipal cinema by 1975.

September 30 to November 26, 1972. Besides paintings, the 16mm color film EX from 1968 is shown. An exhibition catalogue is published.

October 14–15, 1972. After stations in New York and London, Geoffrey Hendricks presents his performance Silent Meditation in the ballroom of the Neue Galerie in 1972. Accompanied by Stephen Varble’s performance Blind Walk, on two days Hendricks dwells meditatively, interrupted by jotting in a notebook, on a pile of earth under which diverse objects from earlier performances are buried. Twenty-four white mice scurry around, symbolically borrowed from a happening staged by his fellow-artist Dick Higgins (Mice all over the place).

Press article from the Aachener Volkszeitung, November 3, 1972, Archiv des Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, Aachen

Gabor Altorjay belongs to a group of young Hungarians who in the 1960s tried to get an independent happening and Fluxus scene going in Budapest. In Cologne he hooks up with Wolf Vostell, but produces mainly radio plays and films, some of them commissioned by WDR. The program features two radio plays—Auf der Suche nach dem Volk (WDR, 1971) and Reise nach Babylon (SDR, 1970–1971)—and films by Balla and Altorjay.


Telewissen, recording during the Videotage in Aachen, 1972, photo: Sepp Linckens/ Zentralarchiv Aachener Zeitung/ Aachener Nachrichten

November 23–26, 1972. The video days, jointly realized with the Darmstadt group Telewissen, mark the start of an intensive curatorial engagement with moving-image media. With the programmatic call to “Make your own televisions,” the new electronic medium is tested out together with the general public of Aachen and, in special workshops, children explore its possibilities in self-made productions. The video days mark the beginning of an ongoing engagement with the artistic medium of video and lead to the development of the video library.


Lili Dujourie

Hommage à… V

1972, video, b&w, without sound, 20:00 min, V_NG_130_II_(a,b)

Hermine Freed

Roy Lichtenstein

1972, video, b&w, sound, 23:42 min, V_NG_38

Gilbert & George

Gordon’s Makes Us Drunk

1972, video, b&w, sound, 12:07 min, V_NG_40

Joan Jonas

Left Side – Right Side

1972, video, b&w, sound, 08:46 min, V_NG_52

Joan Jonas

Vertical Roll

1972, video, b&w, sound, 19:47 min, V_NG_51

Wolf Knoebel

Projektion X

1972, video, b&w, without sound, 39:30 min, V_NG_63_(a,b)

1972, video, color, sound, 40:50 min, V_NG_119

William Wegman

Selected Works: Reel 1

1972, 1970-1972, video, b&w, sound, 15:57 min, V_NG_124_(a,b)

William Wegman

Selected Works: Reel 2

1972, video, b&w, sound, 14:45 min, V_NG_126

William Wegman

Selected Works: Reel 3

1972, video, b&w, sound, 16:33 min, V_NG_127

William Wegman

Selected Works: Reel 5

1972, video, b&w, sound, 27:09 min, V_NG_125

Cover of the exhibition catalogue documenta 5: Befragung der Realität – Bildwelten heute, 1972

Curated by Harald Szeeman, this documenta show is still considered today to have been the most important ever, not least because of the shift in how art is presented. The conventional notion of art is no longer cogent for what is being produced: not only pictures, objects, and spaces are presented as art, but an artwork is now also a performance and a happening, or photographs and videos, circles of stones and discussion spaces. Very few visitors were prepared for what they encountered.

Members of Video Hiroba among them Hakudo Kobayashi (right) and Katsuhiro Yamaguchi (left), 1975

In 1972, Michael Goldberg holds his Video Communication Do It Yourself Kit workshop/exhibition in Tokyo. Many of the local artists involved in the show join together and form the group Video Hiroba. A few members jointly purchase a black-and-white consumer video camera. They begin exploring the technical limits of the medium and assist with each other’s projects, which range from formalistic videos to social documentaries. The word “hiroba” means public square, and was chosen to imply public communication or thoroughfare. The original Hiroba members include: Sakumi Hagiwara, Nobuhiro Kawanaka, Hakudo Kobayashi, Masao Kamura, Toshio Matsumoto, Shoko Matsushita, Rikuro Miyai, Michitaka Nakahara, Fujiko Nakaya, Yoshiaki Tono, Katsuhiro Yamaguchi, and Keigo Yamamoto.

TVTV is a pioneering video collective founded in 1972 by Allen Rucker, Michael Shamberg, Tom Weinberg, Hudson Marquez, and Megan Williams. TVTV pioneers the use of independent video based on wanting to change society and have a good time inventing new and then-revolutionary media, ½” Sony Portapak video equipment, and later embracing the ¾” video format. Shamberg is the author of the video production manual Guerrilla Television (1972). Over the years, more than thirty “guerrilla video” makers participate in TVTV productions.

The establishment of the first video department and continuous video program at any public museum in the United States, in March 1972, comes as a result of James Harithas’s early conversations with Nam June Paik, with Frank Gilette, and later with the museum’s curator of video arts, David Ross. Its basic idea is that of providing artists with access to the form. Ross goes on to develop an exhibition format for video art, a small archive, a community-oriented education program, and an initial plan for promoting the museum’s participation in the cable TV system to be established in Syracuse during the next few years. A substantial donation from the Rosamond Gifford Foundation provides the basic hardware for the department.

From 1972 to 1980, the New York Women’s Video Festival is the primary showcase for work by American woman video makers. This landmark annual event is founded by Steina Vasulka in 1972 to address the dearth of work by women in a video art show she organized at The Kitchen Center for Video and Music in New York earlier that year. The festival is coordinated for the duration of its run by Susan Milano, who travels with it to various national and international venues in Buffalo, San Francisco, Tampa, France, and Belgium.

Robert Filliou and Annette Pfau von den Drisch light the candles of the birthday cake to mark the 1,000,010 birthday of art at the Neue Galerie im Alten Kurhaus, Aachen, 1970, photo: Hein Call/ Zentralarchiv Aachener Zeitung/ Aachener Nachrichten, © Estate of Robert Filliou

The framework for the party organized to mark the occasion is Filliou’s 1963 fictional piece Geflüsterte Kunstgeschichte, in which he contends that, over the course of history, art and life have grown apart after they had originally formed a union. People of different backgrounds, from different areas, at different places were to now come together to celebrate. The interactive exchange between art and life spreads across the city on January 17, the artist’s birthday, and on to the border to Holland and Belgium, before coming to a dazzling climax with a party in the ballroom of the Neue Galerie. The birthday is still celebrated today in the ballroom. A catalogue is published to accompany the event.

Invitation to/announcement of the film evenings at the Neue Galerie im Alten Kurhaus, Aachen, 1973, Archiv des Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, Aachen

Featured artists include: Shinkichi Tajiri and Suzan Pitt Kraning. In addition, thematic film series are shown, such as Der phantastische Film, Die DDR im Spiegel ihrer Filme, and the latest films from East Germany.

1973, video, b&w, sound, 7:14 min, V_NG_61_I

Tony sinking into the floor face up and face down

1973, video, color, sound, 54:52 min, V_NG_80

Studies in Myself II

1973, video, color, sound, 30 min

Nam June Paik

A Tribute to John Cage

1973, video, color, sound, 58:50 min, V_NG_93

Nam June Paik

Global Groove

1973, video, color, sound, 28:28 min, V_NG_94


1973, video, color, sound, 11:06 min, V_NG_110

Television Delivers People

1973, video, color, sound, 6:25 min, V_NG_108

Philippe Van Snick


1973, video, b&w, sound, 14:00 min, V_NG_132_II_(a,b)

1973, video, color, sound, 28:25 min, V_NG_113

The exhibition is an overview of current video activity. Fifty-two artists are invited to submit recent tapes for a simultaneous showing on the West Coast, East Coast, and in the Mid-West. The initial exhibition of the 32-hour package is held in spring 1973, followed by exhibitions in Los Angeles and South Carolina. With: Peter Campus, Hermine Freed, and Joan Jonas.

At a conference at Museum Folkwang in Essen held in November 1973, various European culture institutes interested in forming a cooperative for producing videos announce the founding of the VIDEO COOPERATION EUROPÄISCHER KULTURINSTITUTE (VCEK). The goal is to tackle together all the subject-specific, material, and technical problems emerging out of introducing and using video technology in the institutions and their activities, as well as to begin joint production based on the guidelines set out by a program committee. The Folkwang Museum is the initiator, at this point in time already in possession of a fully equipped video studio.

The Western Front is an artist-run center located in Vancouver, Canada. It is founded by eight artists who want to create a space for the exploration and creation of new art forms. It quickly becomes a center for poets, dancers, musicians, and visual artists interested in exploration and interdisciplinary practices. Many of the Western Front’s early works reflect this interdisciplinary ethos, with early influences of Duchampian and Fluxus-based investigations into mail art, telecommunications art, live electronic music, video, and performance art. In 1973, Western Front helps to organize the “Matrix International Video Conference,” the first international video conference.

January 23–25, 1974. Wolfgang Becker travels to the USA and takes part in a conference held at the MoMA in New York, Open Circuits: The Future of Television. He gives a talk for the panel, discussing “Global Trends in Experimental Television.” Also invited from Germany are Wulf Herzogenrath and Evelyn Weiß. A publication accompanies the conference.

Press article from the Aachener Volkszeitung, February 7, 1974, Archiv des Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, Aachen

Thematic film series shown include Nouvelle Vague, 1959–1969; Let’s face the music and dance. Das amerikanische Musical zwischen Märchen und Realität; 20 Jahre Oberhausen, 20 Jahre internationaler Kurzfilm; and Kunst und Künstler im Spielfilm.

Fritz Schwegler reciting an Effeschiade in the ballroom of the Neue Galerie – Sammlung Ludwig, Aachen, 1974, photo: Hein Call/ Zentralarchiv Aachener Zeitung/ Aachener Nachrichten

January 19 to February 10, 1974. As part of a comprehensive exhibition on Fritz Schwegler, the artist performs in the ballroom his Effeschiaden, which combine text and image, and recites in a narrative chant from his Moritafeln. In the 1974 film O. mit dem Munde gemalt, Schwegler and his students render these text-image ideas into film images.


Invitation to/announcement of the exhibition Barbara und Michael Leisgen, Mimesis at the Neue Galerie – Sammlung Ludwig, 1974, Archiv des Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, Aachen

May 25 to June 30, 1974. This is the couple’s first solo exhibition in an institutional setting. The work Mimesis explores the mimetic capability of humans. Also shown are the films 365 Tage aus dem Leben der L.L., a documentary on their daughter’s first year of life, The never ending water, and Übungen (1972–1974). A catalogue accompanies the exhibition.


Joseph Beuys

I Like America and America Likes Me

1974, video, b&w, sound, 40:07 min, V_NG_7

1974, video, b&w, sound, 6:00 min, V_NG_131_XI_(a,b)

Christian Boltanski

Souvenirs de jeunesse

1974, video, color, sound, 08:56 min, V_NG_11_II

The Florence Tapes

1974, video, b&w, sound, 18 min

Peter Campus

The Collected Videotapes of Peter Campus: Three Short Tapes

1974, Three Transitions, 1973, 04:59 min; Set of Coincidence, 1974, 13:28 min; R-G-B, 1974, 11:39 min; video, color, sound, V_NG_25_I; V_NG_25_II; V_NG_25_III

1974, video, b&w, sound, 9:30 min, V_NG_132_IV_(a,b)

1974, video, b&w, sound, 7:00 min, V_NG_132_III_(a,b)

Claude Degueldere

Le jeune artiste bouffe

1974, video, b&w, sound, 06:00 min, V_NG_132_V_(a,b)

1974, video, b&w, sound, 30:19 min, V_NG_35

Saki Hagiwara


1974, video, b&w, sound, 14:18 min, V_NG_43_II_(a,b)

Saki Hagiwara

Twenty Years

1974, video, b&w, sound, 11:34 min, V_NG_43_I_(a,b)

Joan Jonas


1974, video, b&w, sound, 13:41 min, V_NG_53

Joan Jonas

Glass Puzzle

1974, video, b&w, sound, 17:29 min, V_NG_55

Guy Mees

6×4 Minuten (Portretten)

1974, video, b&w, sound, 24:00 min, V_NG_132_I_(a,b)

Elke Allowing the Floor to Rise Up Over Her, Face Up

1974, video, color, sound, 38:50 min, V_NG_79_(a,b)

Nam June Paik

My Mix – A Composite Edit

1974, video, color, sound, 26:01 min, V_NG_92

1974, video, color, sound, 32:27 min, V_NG_107

Prisoner’s Dilemma

1974, video, b&w, sound, 1:20:55 hrs, V_NG_109_(a,b)

1974, video, color, sound, 26:28 min, V_NG_114

1974, script by Larry Arnstein, produced and directed by Willie Boy Walker, video, b&w, sound, 27:51 min, V_NG_122

Projekt 74: elektronischer Katalog

1974, Vito Acconci: Turn, Joan Jonas: Performance, Reiner Ruthenbeck: Verdeckung, Ulrike Rosenbach: Sorry Mister, Valie Export: Performance, Gruppe VAM: Performance Heinz Breloh: Dokument, Douglas Davis: Studies in Colour, Harald Ortlieb: document Willoughby Sharp: Saskia, Klaus Böhmler: Wir malen mit dem Rot des Kohl, video, color, b&w, sound, 1:03:02 min, V_NG_134_(a,b)

Catalogue cover The New Television: A Public/Private Art. Essays, Statements, and Videotapes. Based on Open Circuits: An International Conference on the Future of Television, ed. by Douglas Davis and Allison Simmons, 1977.

This is the first international conference to explore the cultural potential of television and results in the first important book on the video medium as an art form. The concept of the “open circuit” was first articulated in an early manifesto by Nam June Paik. Wolfgang Becker is invited and gives a talk at the first panel discussion.

Cover Video Katalog 1975, Oppenheim Studio Köln, 1974

In October 1974, Ingrid Oppenheim opens a video studio in Cologne with a gallery that develops into the display window and production location of West Germany’s first generation of video artists. Oppenheim focuses her collecting activities on the Cologne-Düsseldorf art scene and its key protagonists: Sigmar Polke, Katharina Sieverding, Ulrike Rosenbach, Imi Knoebel, and Klaus vom Bruch. The collection includes painting, graphic art, photography, objects, and videos by the first generation and every kind of intermediate form imaginable. Today the video collection is located in the Kunstmuseum Bonn.

This is the first comprehensive video art exhibition in Europe, based in part on the exhibition Circuit: A Video Invitational held at the Everson Museum in 1973. The exhibition is accompanied by a 60-minute video catalogue. Along with the thematic complexes of time, perception, logical systems, performance, and film, video makes up a major section of the exhibition. Besides six installations of video spaces and objects by Nam June Paik, Peter Campus, Dan Graham, Michael Hayden, Frank Gillette, and Douglas Davis, tapes by ninety-five artists, groups, or institutions from the US and Europe are shown. The third section is given the broad title “Video Activities.”

The Electron Movers, Research in the Electronic Arts, Inc., Providence, Rhode Island, USA, c. 1978, pictured from left to right: Alan Powell, Ed Tannenbaum, Dennis Hlynsky, Laurie McDonald, and Robert Jungels. Photo collage by Laurie McDonald.

The Electron Movers is a video artist collective established in 1974 in Providence, Rhode Island, and active through 1979. The group comprises five individuals: Laurie McDonald, Robert and Dorothy Jungels, Alan Powell, and Dennis Hlynsky. Larry Heyl, Philip Palombo, and Ed Tannenbaum later join the group. The Electron Movers explore the intersections of many disciplines, including film/video, music, dance, visual arts, and electrical and optical engineering, challenging established moving image narrative formats in their attempt to explore video as a new language system.

Founded in 1949 by Jacques Ledoux, EXPRMNTL is the first international festival dedicated to experimental film and becomes a meeting place for avant-garde artists. For the fifth and last edition, video art enters the program, with Nam June Paik visiting the Belgian coast to present his installation TV Buddha. With: Peter Campus, Ed Emschwiller, Ernest Gusella, and Steina and Woody Vasulka.

Biennale de Paris, 1975

The Biennale de Paris was launched in 1959 by André Malraux with the purpose of creating a meeting place for those who would define the art of the future. After a hiatus of several years, the Biennale was relaunched in 2000. The following video works shown in 1975 are in the museum’s video collection: Christian Boltanski: Souvenirs de jeunesse (1974), Michael Druks: Test No.3 (drawing) everybody’s own square (1975), Wolf Knoebel: Projektion X (1972), Jacques-Louis Nyst: L’objet (1975), Fabrizio Plessi: Operation Antwerp – Sawing the Schelde (1975), Ulrike Rosenbach: Glauben Sie nicht, dass ich eine Amazone bin (1975), Keith Sonnier: Animation II (1974).

Wolf Kahlen, Schafe, 1975, video stills © Wolf Kahlen, VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn

May 31 to June 21, 1975. The symposium (a result of the projects regularly conducted in the 1970s by the Neue Galerie and the German-French Youth Association) focuses on working artistically with technological media. Artists who are in the meantime well-known, such as Wolf Kahlen, Fritz Schwegler, Timm Ulrichs, Fabrizio Plessi, and the trio Hervé Fischer, Fred Forest, and Jean-Paul Thenot as Collectif d’art sociologique, experiment with the boundaries of aesthetic categorizations, often interacting directly with the local residents at the venue. The ensuing meetings of the young international art scene, 1976 in Bordeaux and 1977 in Aachen, also look to use artistic activity as a means of communication, working with the site-specific contexts but without any specific directives as to the media. The Galerie Falazik brings out a catalogue in conjunction with the event.


Invitation to/announcement of the exhibition Belgien – Junge Künstler I at the Neue Galerie – Sammlung Ludwig, 1975, Archiv des Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, Aachen

November 22 to December 28, 1975. The exhibition takes place within the framework of the Belgian Culture Week. Jacques-Louis Nyst subjects a teapot to a surreal ethnographic analysis. Phillipe van Snick shows his structural interest in the medium with perforations of a strip of film. Films by Filip Francis, Solo for Tumbling Woodblocks, and Alain d’Hooghe, A l’art de l’avantgarde, are shown, as well as interesting works from the Belgian Short Film Day that had just taken place in Namur. A catalogue accompanies the exhibition.


Jean-Pierre Bertrand

Playing with citrons

1975, video, b&w, sound, 22:05 min, V_NG_6

1975, video, b&w, sound, 9:20 min, V_NG_131_Z_(a,b)

Chris Burden

Documentation of Selected Works

1975, 1971-1975, video, color and b&w, sound, 35:07 min, V_NG_21

Pierre Courtois

Fossile no. 10349

1975, video, b&w, sound, 02:37 min, V_NG_131_VII_(a,b)

Pierre Courtois

Le 3ème âge

1975, video, b&w, sound, 01:20 min, V_NG_131_VIII_(a,b)

Pierre Courtois

Nouvelle décomposition, pièce no. 346

1975, video, b&w, without sound, 05:21 min, V_NG_131_VI_(a,b)

1975, video, b&w, without sound, 16:15 min, V_NG_130_IV_(a,b)

Hugo Duchateau


1975, video, b&w, without sound, 14:15 min, V_NG_130_I_(a,b)

Lili Dujourie


1975, video, b&w, without sound, 05:00 min, V_NG_130_III_(a,b)

The Last Videotape (in the World)

1975, video, color, sound, 5 min

Douglas Davis: Video Against Video

1975, video, b&w and color, sound, 28:40 min

Hervé Fischer

Pharmacie Fischer & Cie

1975, This tape was recorded during the German-French symposium Foto-Film-Video in Neuenkirchen. Video, b&w, sound, 32:00 min, V_NG_34_I

Fred Forest

Tagesschau / Journal

1975, This tape was recorded during the German-French symposium Foto-Film-Video in Neuenkirchen. Video, b&w, sound, 30:00 min, V_NG_34_II

1975, video, b&w, sound, 15:00 min, V_NG_131_IX_(a,b)

Bertrand Gadenne

2 Studien / 2 études

1975, This tape was recorded during the German-French symposium Foto-Film-Video in Neuenkirchen. Video, b&w, sound, 15:28 min, V_NG_133_III

1975, 1974-1975, Conversations, Enclosures, Light Pieces, video, b&w, sound, 42:16 min, V_NG_48

1975, video, b&w, without sound, 16:39 min, V_NG_61_II

1975, video, b&w, without sound, 6:13 min, V_NG_59_I

1975, video, b&w, sound, 5:06 min, V_NG_59_II

1975, video, b&w, sound, 5:53 min, V_NG_60

1975, This tape was recorded during the German-French symposium Foto-Film-Video in Neuenkirchen. Video, b&w, sound, 40:06 min, V_NG_57

1975, video, b&w, sound, 13:44 min, V_NG_64_II_(a,b)

1975, video, b&w, sound, 7:20 min, V_NG_64_I_(a,b)

1975, video, color, sound, 14:27 min, V_NG_64_IV_(a,b)

1975, video, b&w, sound, 11:33 min, V_NG_64_III_(a,b)

1975, video, b&w, sound, 30:46 min, V_NG_65_II_(a,b)

Edmund Kuppel


1975, This tape was recorded during the German-French symposium Foto-Film-Video in Neuenkirchen. Video, b&w, sound, 20:00 min, V_NG_133_IV

1975, video, b&w, sound, 2:06 min, V_NG_131_II_(a,b)

1975, Vive la peinture!, 1974; La peinture moderne, 1975; Le tableau, 1975, b&w, sound, 14 min, V_NG_131_I_(a,b)

Fred Licht

Psychological Camouflage

1975, video, b&w, sound, 04:20 min, V_NG_130_V_(a,b)

Lea Lublin

Archéologie du vécu: Interrogations sur l’art

1975, This tape was recorded during the German-French symposium Foto-Film-Video in Neuenkirchen. Video, b&w, sound, 27:39 min, V_NG_74

1975, video, b&w, Sound, 3:08 min, NG_85_IV_(a,b), NG_131_V_(a,b)

1975, video, b&w, sound, 1:43 min, V_NG_85_III_(a,b), V_NG_131_IV_(a,b)

1975, video, b&w, sound, 2:35 min, V_NG_85_II_(a,b), V_NG_131_III_(a,b)

1975, video, b&w, sound, 2:17 min, V_NG_85_VI_(a,b)

Fabrizio Plessi

Operation Antwerpen – Sawing the Schelde

1975, video, b&w, sound, 31:34 min, V_NG_65_I_(a,b)

1975, video, b&w, sound, 11:47 min, V_NG_95_I, V_NG_96_I

Manfred Saul


1975, This tape was recorded during the German-French symposium Foto-Film-Video in Neuenkirchen. Video, b&w, sound, 14:53 min, V_NG_133_II

Sacha Sosno

Abdeckung der Fernsehnachrichten

1975, This tape was recorded during the German-French symposium Foto-Film-Video in Neuenkirchen. Video, b&w, sound, 1975, V_NG_133_I

Video Art (exhibition catalogue), 1975, © Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania

ICA exhibits the first international museum survey of video art. The exhibition features work by major luminaries of video art, including Vito Acconci, Peter Campus, Douglas Davis, and Nam June Paik. Among the dozens of artists included in Video Art is a group of young Brazilians who are some of the very first in their country to experiment with video.

ATV is the first pirate station in Cologne, founded by the video artists Marcel Odenbach, Ulrike Rosenbach, and Klaus vom Bruch. The programs they produce are transmitted within a distance of just a few hundred meters. There is scarcely any cooperation with television stations. “The idea was to counter the drab aesthetics and themes of official television with something more demanding than entertainment, that dared to experiment, and was created by artists. It was intended as a critical reply to the output of the German television landscape.” (Ulrike Rosenbach)

First major exhibition dedicated to video art in Belgium, curated by Michel Baudson. It gives an overview of international video production with a selection of more than 140 videotapes. Aside from Belgian artists such as the Group CAP, Leo Copers, and Hubert Van Es, works are presented by Vito Acconci, Joseph Beuys, Fred Forest, Jochen Gerz, Joan Jonas, Nam June Paik, Ulrike Rosenbach, Wolf Vostell, and others.

De Appel is an exhibition center for contemporary art founded in Amsterdam in 1975. It is mainly devoted to art forms that are difficult to present in traditional museum settings, such as performance, installation, film, and video.

Press article from the Aachener Volkszeitung, December 1976, Archiv des Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, Aachen

Thematic film series are presented on Hans Jürgen Syberberg and Französische Filme der 30er Jahre. Due to popular demand, films by Werner Herzog are shown again, Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle and Aguirre, der Zorn Gottes, starring Klaus Kinski.

Catalogue cover Die truglosen Bilder, René Magritte, Bioskop und Photografie, ed. by Louis Scutenaire, 1976

March 1976. René Magritte – Die truglosen Bilder is the first exhibition dedicated to the work of an already deceased artist at Neue Galerie. Photos and films discovered in Magritte’s Brussels home are shown for the first time in 1975. These include: 63 photo negatives from 1928 to 1955 as well as rolls of film from the 1950s. The film rolls were edited with the support of the Belgian Ministry of Culture—they were transferred from 8 to 16mm and brought together into a 28-minute single film that premiered, along with photos, in the Neue Galerie. Thanks to the support of the Belgian Ministry of Culture, the exhibition then toured the globe. A catalogue accompanies the event.

Invitation to/announcement of the exhibition Anthony McCall at the Neue Galerie – Sammlung Ludwig, 1976, Archiv des Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, Aachen, © Anthony McCall

May 1976. Langzeitfilm für Umgebungslicht is exhibited. Daylight falls into the room through a window and the artificial electric light from a bulb is thus confronted with daylight. McCall draws a line on measuring sheets on the wall for the duration of the exhibition; it represents the constant that is the artificial light. Added to this are a regularly ascending and descending curve, signalizing the fluctuating light from outside. In another room a light cone is shown. The public is asked to fill the room with cigarette smoke.


Invitation to/announcement of the exhibition Daily-Bul and Co at the Neue Galerie – Sammlung Ludwig, 1976, Archiv des Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, Aachen

October 16 to November 21, 1976. In 1974 Daily Bul (André Balthazar and Pol Bury) asked 54 European artists to create contributions for an exhibition that would convincingly represent the BUL philosophy. The BUL philosophy is based on the ridiculous, the unbridled, the shameless, and the contradictory. It is quintessentially non-hierarchical. Artist films accompanying the exhibition are shown continuously on video monitors. At a series of evening events, works by Gilbert & George, Joan Jonas, Keith Sonnier, and William Wegman are shown, while the Düsseldorf film class gives a presentation. An exhibition catalogue is published. This traveling exhibition had two preceding stations, the Fondation Maeght in St. Paul de Vence and Studio du Passage 44 in Brussels. A catalogue is published for both stations.

December 4, 1976 to January 16, 1977. For the opening, Rosenbach performs the video live action Zehntausend Jahre habe ich geschlafen for the first time. While the artist lies still for three hours on a circle of salt and moss on the floor, clamped into an archery bow, before she eventually lifts herself up, a camera orbits her body and records the scene while simultaneously transmitting it to a monitor. A further performance she puts on is Reflektion über die Geburt der Venus. She also holds a video workshop in which, according to the announced program, the Aachen’s Women Center takes part. A catalogue is published for the exhibition.

Pol Bury


1976, L'art illustré, color, sound, 20:00 min; Films/Slogans, b&w, sound, 07:25 min; video, V_NG_22_I_(a,b); V_NG_22_II_(a,b)

Peter Campus

The Collected Videotapes of Peter Campus: Four Short Tapes

1976, Four Sided Tapes, 03:24 min; East Ended Tape, 06:49 min; Third Tape, 05:11 min; Six Fragments, 05:12 min; Video, color, sound, V_NG_24_I; V_NG_24_II; V_NG_24_III; V_NG_24_IV

1976, video, color, sound, 21:10 min, V_NG_45

Three Silent & Secret Acts

1976, video, color, sound, 30 min

Reading Brecht in 3/4 Time

1976, video, color, sound, 30 min

1976, video, b&w, sound, 22:26 min, V_NG_62_III_(a,b)

1976, 1975-1976, video, color, sound, 24:14 min, V_NG_95_II

1976, video, b&w, sound, 20:00 min, V_NG_100

VDB is founded in 1976 at the inception of the media arts movement. It is a leading resource in the USA for video by and about contemporary artists. VDB’s collection has grown to include the work of more than 600 artists and 6,000 video art titles. VDB is dedicated to fostering awareness and scholarship of the history and contemporary practice of video and media art through its distribution, education, and preservation programs.

The volume focuses on the work of primarily American artists who for the most part come to work with video as a natural outgrowth of their work with other media. It presents statements by seventy-three artists related to aspects of their video work, as well as articles by artists, curators, and reviewers regarding the development of different aesthetic approaches to the medium.

The Open Encounters are a meeting place for video artists, curators, and producers. After London (Institute of Contemporary Art, 1974), Paris (Espace Cardin, 1975), Ferrara (Galleria d’arte Moderna, 1975), and Buenos Aires (Centre of Art and Communication, 1975), the 5th International Open Encounter on Video is organized by Florent Bex at the ICC in Antwerp, in collaboration with Jorge Glusberg, director of the CAYC, Buenos Aires. Twenty-seven countries are represented, with more than 260 participants: Chris Burden, Michael Druks, Jacques-Louis Nyst, Gina Pane, Sosno, Wolf Vostell, and others. Alongside the exhibition, colloquia are devoted to “Video and Communication” and “Video and Art.”

The public radio-television station of the French Community of Belgium (RTBF) founds “Videographie,” the first European broadcast to focus exclusively on video art. In 1979, “Videographie” also opens its studio to media artists, becoming one of the major production centers in Belgium. The broadcast funds projects including performances by Laurie Anderson, Marina Abramovic and Ulay, an intervention by Fred Forest, videotapes by Antoni Muntadas, Barbara and Michael Leisgen, and others. The program ends in 1986. In 2003, it becomes Videographies, an International Video Art Association based in Liège that promotes both historical and current productions in media art.

Alan Sonfist, Autobiography (Dialog mit Tieren), performance at the Aachen Zoo, 1977, Hein Call/ Zentralarchiv Aachener Zeitung/ Aachener Nachrichten, © Alan Sonfist

March 26 to April 24, 1977. This remains to the present day Sonfist’s largest solo exhibition in a museum. Sonfist abandons producing a conventional cultural object and instead steps himself into the role of dialogue partner for the audience. Exploring the relationship between humans and animals, Sonfist stages a performance in a monkey cage at the Aachen Zoo in Drimborn Woods; acting in a normal human way during the whole day he spends in the cage, he provokes various reactions from zoo visitors. Wolfgang Becker films what takes place. A large abandoned rodent cave in an Aachen forest, grouted with plaster and then excavated, is presented as a sculpture in the Neue Galerie. An exhibition catalogue is published.

April 30 to June 12, 1977. In 10-minute segments, Friederike Pezold shows various body parts on a screen, emphasizing them through black-and-white contrasts. She presents the female body as a graphic pattern in a cinematic setting. The video works are part of a larger systematic work complex that also includes drawings and photo series. The twelve video tapes are: foot work, vulva work, breast piece, thigh work, arm work, belly button piece, mouth work, eye work, finger piece, back work, knee work, nose piece—photo series, pen and ink drawings, and blueprints on cotton as scroll paintings. She explains the new embodied sign language of the black-and-white goddess in a workbook, published by the Staatliche Kunsthalle Baden-Baden.

Press article from the Aachener Volkszeitung, April 1977, Archiv des Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, Aachen

April 30 to May 31, 1977. A 30-minute film program is screened every day, showing several short films by Dutch artists. The Neue Galerie again contributes to Kunst überspringt Grenzen in the tri-border region. Films are shown by Bas Jan Ader, Will Blink, Mari Boeyen, Michel Cardena, Jan Dibbets, Ger van Elk, Jan van Munster, P. Struycken, Hans de Vries, Robert de Vries, and Lex Wechgelaar.

April 30 to May 31, 1977. Felix van de Beek’s work was first exhibited in Germany in the exhibition Enkel des Stijl, held in the Neue Galerie in 1973. With the help of an aquarium, van de Beek triggers artistic processes, which he captures in photo series and films. His photos obey a serial logic: he fills a plexiglass box that has 49 small drawers with fighting fish, which try to attack one another. At first, the photos show just a few, then more and more, before the photo is almost black due to the density of fish. A 20-minute 16mm film accompanies the photos, demonstrating the movement of the fish until fatigue sets in.

Michael Druks performing Territory – Living Space for the first time, Neue Galerie – Sammlung Ludwig, Aachen, May 5, 1977, © Michael Druks, courtesy England & Co Gallery, London

The video performance is based on the children’s game “territory.” “Maybe you know the children’s game with the pocketknives: draw a circle in the damp ground, segment it into halves, two players, each mark by a thrust of the knife is lengthened, and these lines represent the capturing of a piece of the opponent’s land, until one player has it all. The Israeli artist Michael Druks will perform the piece for us, we will record it with a video camera and produce a video work.” (from the pamphlet announcement). Older video works by the artist are also shown.

Video still Verpuppung, 1977, video still, © Planstudio Siepmann, VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn

September 9 to October 4, 1977. Gerd and Ulla Siepmann form the PLANSTUDIO Siepmann in 1973, which advertises its “products” with pamphlets in a sober design. The works seek to find indirect access to the complex concept of nature, one they see as existing both within and external to ourselves. They thus wok with a hyperbolic concept of nature. The following video works are shown continuously: Maulwurf; Verpuppung; Ich atme, also bin ich; Raum – Zeit – Selbsterfahrung; and Die Kraft der Natur. In addition, the video performance Verpuppung/Chrysalisation is staged. A documentary record is published for the exhibition.

Press article from the Aachener Volkszeitung, October 1977, Archiv des Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, Aachen

October 21 to 23, 1977. Around eight hours of film on 16mm and Super 8, presented and commented on by the students themselves. The film class is founded in 1971 as an extension to the theater class, but already becomes an independent group in 1972. The first lecturer is the Danish director Povleson; a Super 8 camera is purchased and a budget of 7,000 DM made available. In March 1978, the film class is dissolved per senate decree on the grounds that the quality of the artistic works is too low.

Cover of the general collection catalogue Der ausgestellte Künstler, ed. by Wolfgang Becker, 1977

The registration of videotapes is begun. The video collection is presented in the general collection catalogue: Der ausgestellte Künstler, section Grafik – Film – Video.

Participants in the exhibition Bordeaux 76/77 at the Neue Galerie, 1977, photo: Jacques Clayssen

November 12 to December 31, 1977. The exhibition emerges out of the Second German-French Symposium in Bordeaux, held in October 1976, an event put on by the German-French Youth Association, the Centre d’Art Plastique Contemporain in Bordeaux, and the Neue Galerie Aachen. The goal of the symposium is to produce an exhibition with works inspired by discussions in Bordeaux: paintings, drawings, photographs, and site-specific environments. The exhibition is shown in Bordeaux from September 26 to October 30, 1977, and in Aachen from November 12 to December 12, 1977. The first symposium of this kind took place in Neuenkirchen in 1975. Featured artists include: Jean Claerboudt, Annette Messager, Jean-Paul Thibeau, Marcel Odenbach, and Lili Fischer. A catalogue is published to accompany the exhibition.

1977, video, color, sound, 9 min

1977, video, b&w, sound, 33:36 min, V_NG_32

Wulf Herzogenrath

Video Artists – Presented by Herzogenrath on the Occasion of Documenta 6

1977, Part I: Willie Walker, Chris Burden, Ant Farm, Richard Serra, video, color, sound, 1:02:23 hrs, V_NG_136

Wulf Herzogenrath

Video Artists – Presented by Herzogenrath on the Occasion of Documenta 6

1977, Electronic color – electronic variations, part II: Stephen Beck, Billy Adler, Ron Hays, video, color, sound, 43:23 min, N_VG_137

Bruce Kurtz

Spots: The Popular Art of American Television Commercials

1977, video, color, sound, 1:00:35 min, V_NG_68

1977, Lennep présente – Alfred Laoureux, Collectionneur; Les 36 costumes d'Alfred Laoureux, video, b&w, sound, 30:36 min, V_NG_73

1977, video, b&w, sound, 27:30 min, V_NG_112_II_(a,b)

1977, video, b&w, sound, 20:17 min, V_NG_111_III_(a,b)

1977, video, b&w, sound, 54:01 min, V_NG_112_I_(a,b)

1977, video, b&w, sound, 09:04 min, V_NG_111_II_(a,b)

Alan Sonfist

Als ein menschliches Tier im Aachener Tierpark

1977, video, b&w, sound, 57:49 min, V_NG_115_(a,b)

1977, 1. Satz: Freizeit, 19:15 min; 2. Satz: Ordnung, 20:21 min; 3. Satz: Arbeit, 19:24 min, b&w, sound, V_NG_116_(a,b), V_NG_117, V_NG_118

Video documentations (artist symposium Aachen)

1977, Lilli Fischer, Marcel Odenbach: documentation of a discussion; Video, b&w, sound, 1:01:07 min, V_NG_141

Cover of the exhibition catalogue documenta 6, 1977

Curated by Manfred Schneckenburger, documenta 6 is the largest German art exhibition ever held. It pursues the “idea of the media-critical 1970s”: a critically minded attitude that focuses on the increasing power exerted by the media and its reality-distorting factors. Video art is one of the focal points, and works are featured by Ulrike Rosenbach, Vito Acconci, and Joan Jonas. As part of the documenta 6 program, video tapes are broadcast on television on nine evenings.

The Centre Pompidou is a public art and culture center that is home to the Musée National d’Art Moderne (MNAM, Museum of Modern Art, in premises redesigned by Gae Aulenti in 1982–85), with key works of the twentieth century, to which a center for industrial design is also affiliated, along with a library, the IRCAM, a music research center (Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique), a children’s workshop, cinemas, theaters, and lecture auditoriums.

Catalogue cover Video & Film Manifestatie. kijken en doen, ed. by Alexander van Grevenstein and Ton Quik, 1977

The Netherlands Media Art Institute (NIMk) also collects video artworks recorded at significant exhibitions about video art, including works from the Video & Film Event in 1977. The Bonnefantenmuseum in Maastricht arranged this exhibition as a means of integrating video art into the museum. The event lasted five weeks and was divided into multiple parts, such as a video studio to create or view video artwork, an exhibition on technical reproduction and art, video artworks made by artists from five countries (the Netherlands, Belgium, United States, France, and Great Britain), films about art history, a special evening program for Fridays, and artists’ projects. Using this combination of multiple elements that complement each other, the Bonnefantenmuseum hoped to make people more interested in video art as an expressive and educational tool. The catalogue states that there is a need for an institution that makes video equipment available to artists and museums, so that videotapes can be produced for both artistic and educational purposes. In order to be able to manage such a diverse event, the Bonnefantenmuseum needed the cooperation of many other institutions and people. Several video institutions, such as the Agora Studio at the De Appel Arts Center, as well as  the Netherlands Ministry of Culture, Education and Science are mentioned on the partner list. Brandsteder Electronics BV delivered the technical equipment, as it would again for MonteVideo a year later.

Video + Television: Ein Gespräch unter Fachleuten, March 11, 1978, Neue Galerie – Sammlung Ludwig; Nan Hoover, Klaus vom Bruch, Günter Bardeschewski, Ulrike Rosenbach, Herbert Schumacher, Heinz-Peter Schwerfel, Hans Backes; photo: Hein Call/ Zentralarchiv Aachener Zeitung/ Aachener Nachrichten

An event jointly organized and staged by the video collector Dr Hans Backes and the Neue Galerie. Events like these focusing on theoretical considerations concerning video and television underline the interest in the new electronic medium. Artists, influential figures from the museum world, and academics come together in the Neue Galerie to discuss the relationship between video art and television. Guests include: Nan Hoover, Klaus vom Bruch, Ulrike Rosenbach, Marcel Odenbach, and Herbert Schumacher (Telewissen). A publication is produced for the event.

Invitation to/announcement of the exhibition Franz Buchholz, Licht- und tonkinetische Objekte im Raum in the atrium, 1978, Archiv des Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, Aachen

June 10 to July 11, 1978. The exhibition features laser, light, and sound objects in three sections. With his kinetic objects, Buchholz shows in three stages how the artist “vanishes” and the objects develop a “life of their own”: “The purposiveness of technological apparatuses has been taken as a given ever since they were invented. […] Technological apparatuses with the specific purpose of playfully creating a sense of aesthetic pleasure are only gradually gaining acceptance amongst the art public.” (Buchholz in the exhibition catalogue)

Symposium and exhibition Aachen – Grenze at the Neue Galerie – Sammlung Ludwig, 1978

June 16 to July 30, 1978. Analogous to the symposia in Neuenkirchen and Bordeaux, in May 1977 a third artists’ symposium is held in Aachen, to which this time not only French and German, but also Dutch and Belgian artists are invited. Selected by Wolfgang Becker and Jean-Louis Froment, the participants are introduced to the border problems facing Aachen with the objective of gaining ideas for the works in the exhibition to follow. After Aachen, the works are shown in Bonn and Bordeaux. Artists include Lili Fischer, Filip Francis, and Marcel Odenbach. The symposium has been recorded by Odenbach and Fischer. The documentation is part of the video archive at Ludwig Forum. 

Alfred Laoureux in front of Jacques Lennep’s video Lennep présente Alfred Laoureux collectionneur (1977) and amid his collection of suits and shoes in the exhibition Jacques Lennep expose Alfred Laoureux – Collectionneur, atrium, Aachen, January 27 – March 5, 1978, © Jacques Lennep, VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn

January 27 to May 5, 1978. Jacques Lennep exhibits people who—consciously or unconsciously—pursue activities that have something to do with art. The collector Laoureux, now virtually destitute, is the descendant of a rich Belgian family who built up a large art collection and kept it in a castle. He collects all kinds of Manneken Pis figures and exhibits 200 of them. The exhibition is accompanied by a one-hour video cassette in which Laoureux speaks about himself. Videos in the collection: Lennep présente Alfred Laoureux, Collectionneur/Sammler (1978) and Les 36 costumes d’Alfred Laoureux (1977).

October 21 to November 19, 1978. With twelve videos, the exhibition shows Douglas Davis’s oeuvre at the time. While criticizing the media, he uses it at the same time to convey artistic messages. In a performance Davis simulates a television dialogue: he speaks to the visitor from behind a glass pane, as if he were a television announcer. A monitor relays the dialogue. A live discussion between Aachen and New York is announced. From Michael H. Mann some 120 historical photo documents are shown, among them portrait shots of artists and writers such as de Chirico, Léger, Heckel, Mann, and Sartre.

Press article from the Aachener Nachrichten, October 28, 1978, Archiv des Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, Aachen

October/November 1978. Participating in the film seminar are art history students from Aachen and Paris, film students from Berlin and Paris, and independent filmmakers. The event is divided into two large blocks, both open to the public: seminar events with film screenings, work groups, and a panel discussion in the Neue Galerie; and film productions from both countries offering a diverse palette of films, for example works by Herzog, Garrel, and Duras. The seminar is financed by the DFJW, Institut Français Aachen, VHS, Stadt Aachen, Außeninstitut der RWTH, and the Neue Galerie.

Invitation to/announcement of the symposium Performance – ein Grenzbereich zwischen Bildender Kunst und Theater at the Neue Galerie – Sammlung Ludwig, 1978, Archiv des Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, Aachen

November 28 to December 10, 1978. Another artist symposium held by the DFJW in cooperation with the Neue Galerie and the Centre d’Arts Plastiques Contemporains, Bordeaux. With its program conceived by Klaus vom Bruch and Ulrike Rosenbach together with Wolfgang Becker, the symposium focuses on performance as a liminal form between art, theater, music, dance, film, painting, and sculpture. The performances put on by the young participants from all over Europe center on the intermedia aspect of ephemeral art forms, underpinned theoretically in the lectures, seminars, and discussions with the interdisciplinary expert audience and museum visitors. A video documentation of the artist symposium, put together by vom Bruch and Rosenbach under the name “Alternative-Television-Gruppe” and broadcast in 1979 by WDR, provides an insight into the details of the performances, including those by Kevin Atherton, Klaus vom Bruch, Mike Hentz, Bettina Kleinhammes, Nigel Rolfe, and Lydia Schoutten. A catalogue is published to accompany the event.

The Dutch group Maniac Productions puts on a video performance during the symposium “Performance – ein Grenzbereich zwischen bildender Kunst und Theater” from November 28 to December 10, 1978. Other presentations of the performance are given on December 1 in the Museum Folkwang Essen and on December 14 in the Kölnischer Kunstverein.

Laurie Anderson

Einige Lieder Rückwärts

1978, video, color, sound, 27:52 min, V_NG_1

Joseph Beuys, Nam June Paik

In Memoriam George Maciunas I

1978, 1931-1978, video, b&w, sound, 46:07 min, V_NG_10_(1/2)

Joseph Beuys, Nam June Paik

In Memoriam George Maciunas II

1978, 1931-1978, video, b&w, sound, 28:10 min, V_NG_10_(2/2)

1978, video, color, sound, 14:43 min, V_NG_13

1978, video, color, sound, 22:24 min, V_NG_15

1978, 1974-1978, Dude Defending, 3:03 min; Heads and Hands, 2:45 min; Neoplastic Key, 5:16 min; Pistol, 0:34 min; Playing Catch I, 1:34 min; Playing Catch II, 1:13 min; Portrait, 2:35 min; Pound, 1:18 min; Rash, 1:15 min; School, 1:15 min; Deviated Septum, 1:59 min; Arrows, 5:03 min; Blank, 1:25 min; Sundae, 1:18 min; Two Figures, 0:34 min; Vere-Composition, 2:23 min; Video-Taping, 3:01 min; Video-Wiping, 4:13 min; Wolf-Zooming, 5:55 min; Words, 6:03 min, video, color, sound, V_NG_42

Joan Jonas

The Juniper Tree (Der Wacholderbaum)

1978, video, color, sound, 59:04 min, V_NG_54

Robert Kushner

Layers – Schichten

1978, video, color, sound, 49:23 min, V_NG_69_(a,b)

Dietmar Momm


1978, video, b&w, sound, 5:26 min, V_NG_78_II

Dietmar Momm


1978, video, b&w, sound, 24:00 min, V_NG_78_III

1978, 1977-1978, video, color and b&w, sound, 14:44 min, V_NG_87

1978, video, b&w, sound, 29:15 min, V_NG_98_I

Video documentation, Performance festival Vienna

1978, Video, color, sound, 46:00 min, V_NG_140

The Netherlands Media Art Institute is founded in 1978. The distribution collection comprises more than 2,000 works at present, varying from the earliest experiments through recent productions by well-known Dutch and international artists and rising talents. Apart from these media artworks, the Institute’s online archive contains over thirty years of media art: 1,000 media artworks and unique documentation of events and projects realized and presented by NIMk. Additionally, an important reference collection of more than 6,500 titles can be consulted in the mediatheque. In addition to its own collection, the Institute also manages the video collections of the De Appel Foundation, the Lijnbaan Center in Rotterdam, and the Netherlands Institute for Cultural Heritage (ICN).

Founded in 1978, the JVC-sponsored Tokyo Video Festival (TVF) is now the largest international video competition in Japan, gathering 40,000 works from ninety countries worldwide. The festival is open to amateurs and professionals making short and feature films, documentaries, and fiction.

Nam June Paik is appointed professor at the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf in 1978. Officially he is chair of sculpture, but in practice he teaches video for seventeen years. The video workshop set up in 1976 by Ursula Wevers is still technologically in its early stage in 1978.

Catalogue cover Das Bermuda-Dreieck der Kunst. Ein Gespräch unter Fachleuten am 17. März 1979, ed. by the Neue Galerie – Sammlung Ludwig, 1979

The idea behind this meeting goes back to the “Video + Fernsehen” symposium of 1978. The topic emerges out of a discussion with Barbara and Michael Leisgen on the economic and social situation of many artists, who are recognized and important for contemporary art on the one hand, but whose problems of earning a livelihood and surviving on meagre incomes are repressed from the public consciousness. Artists, gallerists, and collectors are brought together here to discuss the dilemma of living and working in a “Bermuda Triangle” and to hear the experiences and responses of their counterparts. Featured artists include: Barbara and Michael Leisgen, Jochen Gerz, Ulrike Rosenbach, Philomene Magers, Rudolf Zwirner, and Wolfgang Becker. Hans Backes writes a field report on the proceedings.

Invitation to/announcement of the exhibition Kubisch & Plessi, Konzerte, Video, Performances, Installationen at the Neue Galerie – Sammlung Ludwig, 1979, Archiv des Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, Aachen

September 22 to October 23, 1979. “For us it is important that the public sees an image that cannot be immediately codified. An already familiar object can be captured by a camera and enlarged in a detail view so that it appears as something completely new, autonomous. And this is also possible with sound: I can play a traditional instrument in an unusual way, so that the source of the sound is no longer identifiable immediately. That means naturally a readjustment of listening habits.” Christina Kubisch in discussion with Georg F. Schwarbauer and Fabrizio Plessi. Shown works include Liquid Piece (1975), Two and Two (1976/77), and Tam-Tam (1979). A video documentation is in the collection. The works are then subsequently shown at the Internationaal Cultureel Centrum in Antwerp. An exhibition catalogue is published.

1979, video, color, sound, 51:26 min, V_NG_18

1979, video, color, sound, 15:52 min, V_NG_16

1979, video, Color, sound, 32:00 min, V_NG_14

Julia Hayward, Laurie Anderson

Psycho Acoustics

1979, video, b&w, sound, 57:59 min, V_NG_2

, Fabrizio Plessi

1979, video, color, sound, 31:48 min, V_NG_66_(a,b)

, Fabrizio Plessi

1979, video, color, without sound, 32:35 min, V_NG_67

Dietmar Momm


1979, video, b&w, sound, 23:59 min, V_NG_78_I

Nam June Paik

Guadalcanal Requiem

1979, 1977/1979, video, b&w, sound, 28:35 min, V_NG_91

1979, video, color, sound, 18:33 min, V_NG_97_I

Tanz um einen Baum (Documentation of a video action)

1979, video, color, sound, 26:31 min, V_NG_98_II

1979, Video, color, sound, 26:22 min, V_NG_99

The exhibition consists of sixteen videotapes by sixteen Japanese artists whose work is representative of video art currently being produced in Japan. The artists represented utilize the medium for its portability, immediacy of image, and plasticity. Most work with the small-format (one-half- or three-quarter-inch) portable video camera and recording deck, which are easily transported from location to location and are ideal for spontaneous documentation. The show goes on to twelve other museums in the United States, Canada, Europe, and Japan. With: Nobuhiro Kawanaka and Hakudo Kobayashi.

The Kunsthaus Zürich has continuously collected video art since 1979. Video is understood here as an independent, creative medium, meaning that documentary and commercial productions are only seldom considered. When dealing with the area of modern art, however, documentary tapes are collected by the library. From the medium’s pioneer years in the 1960s through to the current video boom, the museum has works by internationally renowned artists as well as a cross-section of Swiss video productions.

Catalogue cover Dorothy Iannone and her mother Sarah Pucci, ed. by the Neue Galerie – Sammlung Ludwig, 1980

April 26 to June 8, 1980. Besides objects, photography, paintings, drawings, books, text manuscripts, the works of Sarah Pucci, and cassettes by Dorothy Iannone, four video pieces are shown, Aua-Aua, My Poetic Beast, Iannone’s Yoni, and Sarah Pucci, as well as a Sony U-matic cassette. All of the works revolve around Dorothy Iannone’s encounters with her lover. The composition and style lend the subjective event a representative, meaningful character. An exhibition catalogue is published.

The City of Aachen authority authorizes a purchasing budget of DM 25,000 for video works; the sum is augmented by funds from the state of NRW. The video library is set up, the first of its kind in West Germany.

1980, video, color, no sound, 1:01:25 min, V_NG_12

1980, video, color, sound, 11:59 min, V_NG_17_I

1980, video, color, sound, 19:55 min, V_NG_17_II

1980, video, color, sound, 31:55 min, V_NG_36

1980, AIFOS I, 1979, 14:07 min; Ur-Zeit, 1980, 4:17 min; AIFOS II, 1980, 10:53 min; Zwiebelwand, 1980, 8:51 min; Schutzlos-unverwundbar, 1980, 8:55 min, video, color, sound, V_NG_41

Dorothy Iannone

Sarah Pucci

1980, video, color, sound, 27:02 min, V_NG_49

Jürgen Mau

Marilyn Monroe: Video Experiment

1980, probably 1980, video, color, sound, 1:01:27 min, V_NG_75

David Vostell

1980, video, color, sound, 21:02 min, V_NG_121

1980, video, color, sound, 39:52 min, V_NG_120

The Sammlung Goetz is an internationally important collection of contemporary art located in Munich that has developed since the mid-1980s thanks to structured collection activities. It is generally seen as one of the world’s largest film and video collections. In 2003–04, it hosted the exhibition fast forward. Media Art Sammlung Goetz in cooperation with the ZKM, featuring a comprehensive selection of media works. In 2010, there followed fast forward 2. The Power of Motion. Media Art Sammlung Goetz, with a representative selection of the Sammlung’s recent acquisitions of video and media works since 2000.

1980s. The Andy Warhol Film Project begins in the 1980s when the Whitney Museum and The Museum of Modern Art agree to collaborate on the largest archival research project in the history of American avant-garde cinema: to catalogue Warhol’s massive film collection, investigate its history, and preserve and re-release all the films in conjunction with a program of scholarly research and publication. Warhol himself gives his approval to the Whitney’s project and hands over his original films to MoMA for cataloguing and storage in 1984. The joint project is launched publicly in 1988 with the Whitney’s exhibition The Films of Andy Warhol and with MoMA’s release of thirteen newly preserved titles.

The Kramlichs begin collecting film and video-based art in the late 1980s. With more than 200 pieces, they have one of the world’s largest private collections of video and new media arts. Their collection includes works by such historical figures as Vito Acconci, Dara Birnbaum, Marcel Broodthaers, Dan Graham, and Bruce Nauman, as well as by leading contemporary artists including Matthew Barney, Stan Douglas, Steve McQueen, Mariko Mori, Keith Tyson, and Jeff Wall. In 1997, the Kramlichs establish the New Art Trust to advance the media arts through the support of research and scholarship in the field. This foundation also collects and maintains new media art installations.

In 1980, Ingrid Oppenheim gives her video collection to the Kunstmuseum Bonn on permanent loan: some 400 works by pioneers of video art, among them Joan Jonas, Alan Kaprow, Dennis Oppenheim, Peter Campus, Les Levine, Klaus vom Bruch, Marcel Odenbach, and Ulrike Rosenbach. The Kunstmuseum’s video collection is now one of the most important of its kind in Germany. Since 2006, the collection has been presented in the installation Odeon, an expansive and traversable architectural sculpture by the Munich artist Stefan Eberstadt. Here, two stations enable visitors to view the works.

Invitation to/announcement of the exhibition Wolf Vostell, Kunstreisen. Fluxus-Zug at the Neue Galerie – Sammlung Ludwig, 1981, Archiv des Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, Aachen

April 30 to May 24, 1981. In cooperation with the Neue Galerie, numerous actions take place under the motto chosen by Vostell: “The Contradictory Route.” The accompanying program includes a series organized by Wolfgang Becker that presents films, videos, and radio plays by Vostell as well as the exhibition Kunstreisen, which provides visitors with comments on the “Fluxus Train.” With the “Fluxus Train,” Vostell succeeds in putting together a temporary museum made up of nine containers spanning a length of 125 meters, full of his works, and putting it on railway tracks for a tour through sixteen West German cities. Drawing interested and enthusiastic crowds, the nine containers of the “Fluxus Train” stop off at Aachen Main Station from May 8 to 12, 1981.

Press article from the Aachener Nachrichten, May 1981, Archiv des Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, Aachen

As the first and only German museum, the Neue Galerie opens a video library in May 1981. Twice a day, a one-hour program with video works from the collection is screened. Three players are available. The library starts out with 125 works and is continually enlarged. The studio equipment completed in this year (at a cost of DM 25,000) offers every interested person with a well-defined concept the possibility to create their own works. The first registration of videotapes was begun as early as 1977.

Press article from the Aachener Nachrichten, September 21, 1981, Archiv des Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, Aachen

Six Aachen artists—Renate Müller, Pe Drehsen, Barbara and Michael Leisgen, Michael Zepter, Dietmar Momm, and Franz Buchholz—provide a survey of the state of audio-video art in the city. Besides the presentation in the salesrooms of Radio-Ring, the works are shown in parallel in the video studio of the Neue Galerie.

Invitation to the exhibitions Nan Hoover. Fotostücke. Videostücke (right) and Mac Adams. Der Mond unter dem Kronleuchter und andere Bilder. Installationen. Fotostücke. Zeichnungen (left), Neue Galerie – Sammlung Ludwig, Aachen, September 12 – October 6, 1981

The exhibition comprises a work complex from 1980. For Hoover, all media are equally important; in 1980 the photo works are often the starting point for a more far-reaching development of the subject matter with video and performance. In the series of “double negative” photos, she uses for instance the principle of the contact print, producing only a single print from two or more adjoining negative light exposures. The exhibition and catalogue both come from a show at the daad galerie Berlin.

Psyche und Eros (1980) is a video in which Ulrike Rosenbach holds the beak of a strangely formed bird-like wooden head while plucking at its tongue and whispering a story, creating the impression that the tongue is an acoustic instrument producing the sound.

1981, Hands I und II, 1981, 22:47 min; Videopainting, 1981, 26:19 min; Radiographische Strukturen, 1979, 7:42 min; Zerstörung der Medien (Fragmente), 1980, 1:14 min, color, sound, V_NG_20_I, V_NG_20_II, V_NG_20_III

1981, Strukturen und Farbe in Bewegung, 29:35 min; Zeichnungen in Bewegung, 32:27 min, video, color, sound, V_NG_19_I, V_NG_19_II

Strukturen II, 1981, Videostills © Franz Buchholz

1981, 1980-1981, video, color, sound, 22:14 min, V_NG_58

1981, video, color, sound, 1:02:37 min, V_NG_102

1981, video, color, sound, 1:02:37 min, V_NG_101

Public discussion with Wolf Vostell and Wolfgang Becker in the Neue Galerie Sammlung Ludwig, Aachen (May 11 1981) during the stay of the Vostell train in Aachen, part I

1981, video, color, sound, 60:00 min, V_NG_138_(1/2)

Public discussion with Wolf Vostell and Wolfgang Becker in the Neue Galerie Sammlung Ludwig, Aachen (May 11 1981) during the stay of the Vostell train in Aachen, part II

1981, video, color, sound, 50:00 min, V_NG_138_(2/2)

Television recordings/reports on the opening of the Vostell train in Aachen (Journal 3, Aspekte) and shots of the opening party held in the Neue Galerie Sammlung Ludwig, Aachen

1981, video, color, sound, 60 min, V_NG_139

Ralf Walraff

Aktion „Gewalt“: eine Aktion zum Fluxus-Zug

1981, video, color, sound, 20:21 min, V_NG_123

Michael Zepter

Farbaktion, Teil 1 und Teil 2

1981, video, color, sound, 1:02:12 min, V_NG_129

Works by Günther B. Beckers are shown as part of the Young Artist series. Beckers is a painter and musician. As a painter he portrays his friends and Aachen pubs and bars, as a guitarist he is involved in the Aachen music scene. He is interested in connecting sound and image. Based on a performance, the video film Walkman is his first attempt to bring image and music into an artistic union.

The video library set up in the collection of the Neue Galerie in 1981 is given fresh impetus. The daily video screenings of one hour are extended to four. The longer time span is made possible by a new video unit that can play video cassettes for four hours at a stretch.

Günther B. Beckers


1982, video, color, sound, 1:02:02 min, V_NG_5

Günther B. Beckers


1982, video, color, sound, 1:01:45 min, V_NG_4

Danièle Nyst,

1982, video, color, sound, 20:34 min, V_NG_86

1982, video, color, sound, 12:48 min, V_NG_89

1982, 1981-1982, video, b&w, sound, 20:38 min, V_NG_88

Since its founding, 235 MEDIA has been involved in placing media art and acts as an agency for media artists. It also has an extensive archive of video art, artist documentary films, etc. that has over 3,000 works, which are gradually being digitized, restored, and made accessible to the public. In 2003, the pilot project “MedienKunstArchiv,” which preserves and digitally catalogues tapes of video art, initiated by 235 MEDIA, was launched in Germany. The non-profit foundation imai was formed out of the project in 2006. For the Aachen exhibition Video et Cogito. Wiederhergestellte Künstlervideos der Sammlung (2004), thirty exemplary video works were digitally preserved.

The exhibition is announced as “the largest exhibition ever devoted to a single video artist.” This exhibition and publication exemplify the Whitney Museum’s commitment to presenting the achievements of artists working in video, a commitment that began eleven years ago, in 1971, with the first major videotape exhibition in a New York City museum, A Special Videotape Show.

The exhibition of eighteen videotapes by many of video art’s most active practitioners examines the broadcast television medium through the perception of independent video makers. The tapes in this show all refer to and comment on conventional TV, by parody, analysis, or formal revision. With: Ant Farm, Nam June Paik, Chris Burden, and Dara Birnbaum.

Catalogue cover Videokunst in Deutschland 1963–1982. Videobänder, Videoinstallationen, Video-Objekte, Videoperformances, Fotografien, ed. by Wulf Herzogenrath, 1983

The exhibition sees itself as an attempt to provide the first extensive survey of twenty years of video art in Germany. Emphasis is placed on the diversity of the works, with less attention given to the aesthetic categories of video art. Some of the themes attracting interest are the beginnings of Fluxus, the role played by Gerry Schum, the first WDR experiments, and the areas in which the medium can be used, for example in performances. A video library is set up in the exhibition.

Invitation to/announcement of the exhibition Wolf Kahlen, Arbeiten mit dem Zufall, den es nicht gibt at the Neue Galerie – Sammlung Ludwig, 1983, Archiv des Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, Aachen

March 19 to April 18, 1983. “Wolf Kahlen’s thinking has always—and not just since his luckily survived shipwreck two years ago—circled around phenomena of ‘coming and going,’ of becoming and passing away, of birth and death, as well as what he calls the coincidence ‘that does not exist.’” (quote from the catalogue) The exhibition features photographs, photo drawings, video pieces, and video drawings. Kahlen’s video production is also regularly shown. The exhibition and catalogue come from a show presented by the Neuer Berliner Kunstverein.

Exhibition view Jürgen Mau, Zeichen-Setzung. Eine Balance-Arbeit, 1983, © Jürgen Mau

September 30 to November 15, 1983. Videotapes are show along with image/sign panels, audiotapes, photo installations, slide projections, drawings, and actions with objects. “Observations and transition” document the action “Pol 1 (Grün), Inferno und Paradies.” The first video shows how Mau finds image-signs in a darkened room with the help of a flashlight. The second video documents the attempt to gain freedom. An exhibition catalogue is published.

Joseph Beuys


1983, video, b&w, sound, 09:31 min, V_NG_9

Astrid Heibach

Universal Input Output. Eine Studie über Japaner

1983, video, color, sound, 22:15 min, V_NG_46

Geoffrey Hendricks

Five Poems without Words

1983, video, color, sound, 21:41 min, V_NG_47

Jürgen Mau

Eine Balance-Arbeit

1983, video, color, sound, 58:21 min, V_NG_76

1983, video, color, sound, 10:21 min, V_NG_103

Invitation to/announcement of the exhibition Geoffrey Hendricks, Sky – Himmel at the Neue Galerie – Sammlung Ludwig, 1984, Archiv des Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, Aachen

May 11 to June 3, 1984. In 1983, Geoffrey Hendricks, living in Berlin as a guest of the DAAD artist program, resumes working on his sky pictures. The large works Sky to the West and Sky to the East are the result, along with several gray cloud works in his Berlin journal. With the performance GRID he moves away from the primarily meditative character of his previous works and finds a more stringent form. A catalogue accompanies the traveling exhibition.

The exhibition shows Klaus Paier’s photographs of his wall paintings in public space. On the night before the opening, Paier paints a work in the arcade in front of the Neue Galerie, which is threatened with immediate removal. The exhibition also features the video made by his friend Josef Stöhr, who often accompanied Paier on his nocturnal forays: Mauerbilder aus Aachen – Video zur Ausstellung, 1984. The video is part of the collection.

Geoffrey Hendricks

Fluxus performance with students of the Aachen University of Applied Sciences, design department

1984, video, b&w, sound, 14:37 min, V_NG_142

Jörg Immendorf

Malen heißt siegen

1984, video, color, sound, 44:48 min, V_NG_50

1984, video, color, sound, 8:46 min, V_NG_105

1984, video, color, sound, 17:54 min, V_NG_106

1984, video, color, sound, 19:38 min, V_NG_104

Josef Stöhr, Klaus Paier

Mauerbilder aus Aachen – Video zur Ausstellung

1984, video, color, sound, 19:14 min, V_NG_90

Catalogue cover Videonale 1, photo: Achim Duchow, © Videonale e.V., Bonn

The Bonn Videonale e.V. begins its work in 1984 by organizing a biannual international festival and competition for video. Today, the Videonale is one of the oldest and most renowned festivals for video art in Germany and Europe, seeing itself as a platform for both young up-and-coming as well as established artists. Since 2016, the organizers have called not only for video entries but explicitly for video installations, performance, and virtual reality works.

Invitation to/announcement of the exhibition Kunstpreis Aachen 1985 at the Neue Galerie – Sammlung Ludwig, 1985, Archiv des Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, Aachen

At the award ceremony and opening of the A.R. Penck exhibition Standard-Modelle 1973/74, which runs until January 1986, an impromptu concert is given on November 22 by Penck (percussion), Frank Wollny (clarinet), and Markus Lüpertz (piano), which is filmed. A publication is produced for the event.

A.R. Penck

A.R. Penck in Concert

1985, video, color, sound, 52:52 min, V_NG_143

April 18 to May 25, 1986. Originally, Rosenbach’s artistic work, which today focuses on the areas of action/performance, video installations, video performance, and drawing, was conceptually geared to revealing constrictive social structures through pictorial means. Art is invested with creative potential capable of raising awareness of imposed social fetters and fixed definitions. On show are drawings, photo works, installations, and video pieces from 1972 to 1986, including Begegnung mit Ewa und Adam and Die Eulenspieglerin – das Mädchen wächst weiter. An exhibition catalogue is published. As part of the exhibition, Ulrike Rosenbach presents the performance ANA’L HAQ (“I am God”) on May 23.

Theo Eshetu

Till Death Us Do Part

1986, 1984-1986, Rites de passage, 10:22 min; East is the Beast, 10:01 min; My Better Half, 18:11 min; Color, sound, V_NG_33

From 1986 to 1996, the American Film Institute (AFI) presents the annual Maya Deren Independent Film and Video Artists Award to celebrate achievements in underground and non-commercial independent filmmaking. Each year, between two and four filmmakers are honored, mostly individually, but some filmmaking teams receive the award together. The inaugural recipients are video artist Nam June Paik, experimental filmmaker Stan Brakhage, and animator Sally Cruikshank. The award includes a $5,000 grant.

In 1986, the Museum Ludwig establishes its video collection, emphasizing the independent status of artistic work using moving images. The first 16mm films were acquired by the predecessor institution, the Walraff-Richartz-Museum, in 1974, the first U-matic cassettes at around the same time: among them are films by Bruce Nauman, Ed Ruscha, Richard Serra, and Bruce Connor. Today, all films, videos, sound installations, media art, and performances are collected and exhibited as part of contemporary art.

Invitation to/announcement of the exhibition Stellungsspiel: Barbara und Michael Leisgen at the Neue Galerie – Sammlung Ludwig, 1987, Archiv des Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, Aachen

October 2 to November 8, 1987. The exhibition shows a photo series of extremely enlarged faces with closed eyes, a further development of the series of 365 photos of the face of their daughter the artist couple exhibited in the Neue Galerie in 1974. The performative appropriation of landscape is also continued in the Himmelsschriften. A catalogue is published for the traveling exhibition.

1987, video, color and b&w, sound, 7:32 min, V_NG_44

Invitation to/announcement of the exhibition Ellen Lampert “Go! Action”, “Nightmare in the Dream Factory” at the Neue Galerie – Sammlung Ludwig, 1988, Archiv des Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, Aachen

June to August 1988. Born in Hollywood, and thus coming from the factory producing the “American Dream,” Lampert speaks in a language colored by comics about her solidarity with such a society and her fears of a schizophrenic loss of reality. She is full of stories from this small world that means so much. She paints, talks, writes, stages performances, and produces video films. She embodies a new type of cultural producer. (from the catalogue) An exhibition catalogue is published.

The exhibition presents a selection of installations and sculptures that employ the medium of video as the central element. The works on view represent sculpture and installation, one part of the video art form. They explore the expressive potential that resides within the material and properties of the medium. With: Nam June Paik, Shigeko Kubota, and Joan Jonas.

Transmediale is founded as the VideoFilmFest in 1988. In the course of its thirty-year history, the festival shifts its focus from video to multimedia-based art forms and evolves into an international platform for digital art and culture. By gathering works, program brochures, publications, and documentation material from each festival edition, the transmediale/archive documents a substantial portion of the history of media and digital art and contributes to the archiving of experimental media culture in Berlin and internationally.

Audiovisual archive of Argos, Centre for Art and Media © Argos, 2014

Argos is founded for the purpose of stimulating and promoting audiovisual art; at present, it is the country’s main reference source for this type of artistic practice. During the first period, the organization focused on showing a wide variety of works within Belgium. In 1997, the first Argos Information Days are held, with great success, offering an annual preview of Belgian artist films and videos. In 2000, the video conservation program starts up. The first project includes more than 100 titles representing an important body of Belgian works from the 1970s. It is the beginning of a conservation effort that, to date, comprises more than 2,000 titles.

The ZKM combines research and production, exhibitions and events, archive and collection. Operating at the interface between art and science, it takes up new knowledge in the field of media technology with a view to further development. In 1997, the ZKM relocated to a restored industrial building that was once part of a munitions factory. It is now home to a media museum and museum for contemporary art, as well as a series of institutes specializing in image media and music and acoustics, a media library, and a media theater and cube.

The exhibition marks a key turning point in both the exhibition of moving images in a gallery setting and the reconfiguration of the relationship between art and cinema that has taken place in the last twenty-five years. Comprising a gallery exhibition, an extensive film program, and a viewing room for “synthetic images,” Passages de l’image defies traditional museological practice to stage an investigation of the intermedia “passages” across cinema, photography, video, and digital images.

June 29 to September 22, 1991. To mark the opening of the Ludwig Forum für internationale Kunst, the media art collection is presented in one of the three catalogues devoted to the whole collection. Several distinguished works are part of the first exhibition.

In 1992, the video collection holds some 900 tapes, of which 65 are classified as artist videos or artworks that document the beginnings of video and performance art. The quality of many tapes has deteriorated greatly over the years due to inappropriate storage and obsolescence. To prevent further damage, they are no longer permitted to be used. The problem of preserving the medium of video becomes acutely clear: the decay of the analogue magnetic tapes, the result of aging and storing, as well as the obsolete playback technology, represent a grave danger to video art.

Larry Miller

Selections from Interviews and Performances

1992, video, color and b&w, sound, 1:12:24 min, V_NG_77

Catalogue cover Video im Kunstmuseum Bonn. Die Sammlung, ed. by Kunstmuseum Bonn, 1992

The publication Videokunst im Kunstmuseum Bonn is a catalogue of Ingrid Oppenheim’s video collection and a survey of the special video events held at the Kunstmuseum from 1986 to 1991. Starting with a symposium at the 1986 Videonale, artists are regularly invited to Bonn to present and discuss their works. Between 1986 and 1991, fifty such evenings take place. With the opening of the museum’s new building, the video collection gains its first-ever own space reserved exclusively for new media, which is simultaneously integrated into the collection.

Catalogue cover Video-Skulptur in Deutschland seit 1963, ed. by Wulf Herzogenrath/ Institut für Auslandsbeziehungen, 1994

The exhibition features eighteen video sculptures and installations as well as forty-two works on paper from between 1963 and 1994. The focus is on contemporary works, some of which are specially created for the exhibition. Four generations are represented, as it were: the fathers of video art (Paik, Vostell), the middle generation (vom Bruch, Kahlen, Odenbach, Rosenbach), the younger generation (Günther, Megert, Staehle), and the most recent generation (Anders, Brenner).

Catalogue cover How Durable is Video Art? Contributions to Preservation and Restoration of the Audiovisual Works of Art, symposium at the Kunstmuseum Wolfsburg, ed. by Kunstmuseum Wolfsburg, 1997

During the Nam June Paik exhibition High-Tech Allergy at the Kunstmuseum Wolfsburg, a symposium is held where art historians, media theorists, technicians, conservators, lawyers, and philosophers discuss the following questions: Given its transitory and fragile nature, what can be done to save the picture medium of video as an expression of our television age in the twenty-first century? Is the authenticity of the artwork preserved when re-recorded on a new data carrier?

Catalogue cover Being & Time. The Emergence of Video Projection, ed. by Karen Lee Spaulding, 1996

Including five room-sized installations and a projected video in the form of a free-standing sculpture, this provocative exhibition provides an aesthetic experience as close to mural painting and film as to video proper. These projected video installations take video art out of the screening room and place it in a museum setting with the fine arts of painting and sculpture. With: Bruce Nauman, Bill Viola, Willie Doherty, Tony Oursler, and Diana Thater.

Since its establishment, Galerie Anita Beckers has been promoting young artists, with a special emphasis on video art. The Galerie communicates between traditional and new media art, established and young artists, performance and video art. In collaboration with Julia Sökeland, Anita Beckers initiated, a professional website for research into video art, performance, and multimedia installations. The web platform connects galleries worldwide and gives them a way to present their artists online.

Jochen Gerz

Der malende Mund

1998, 1979-1998, video, b&w, sound, 21:22 min, V_NG_39; V_Lufo_8

A quote is given by AK Media Aachen on the costs for copying the videotapes onto VHS cassettes. The amount given is 50 DM/minute. The project is abandoned due to the costs.

Catalogue cover video cult/ures. multimediale Installationen der 90er Jahre, ed. by Ursula Frohne, 1999

Video has developed into a universal and integrative language that, in the form of large-screen projections, monitor images, or interactive systems, allows artists to link space and time, fiction and reality, theory and everyday life. This show presents a broad selection of international works by contemporary artists whose creativity in the field of video has lastingly enlivened and inspired contemporary art. Interculturality and a sensibility for socially mediated constructions of identity emerge as the centers of gravity around which video art has revolved in the preceding years.

In 1999, the Film and Video Committee is established to develop the acquisition of film and video for the Whitney’s collection. The Whitney’s holdings of film and video now form one of the major collections in the field and have become an important locus for art historical scholarship. Highlights of the collection include a large number of film installations and artist films from the 1960s and 70s. The Whitney holds the “Castelli-Sonnabend Tapes and Films Collection.” Among the earliest works in the Museum’s collection are Nam June Paik’s video sculpture Magnet TV (1965) and Bruce Conner’s three-screen projection EVE-RAY-FOREVER (1965/2006), one of the first film installations ever made. Another pillar of the Museum’s film and video program is “The Andy Warhol Film Project.”

For the exhibition Streitlust – For argument’s sake. Die Kunst der letzten 30 Jahre und die Sammlung Ludwig (Oct 28, 2001 to Feb 10, 2002), videotapes by Chuck Close and Nancy Graves are copied onto DVD. An exhibition catalogue is published.

In 2002, a strategy for digitizing/restoring those videotapes already withdrawn from use in 1992 is developed with the Cologne agency for media art 235 MEDIA. The aim is to prevent any further damage or deterioration in quality.

Exhibition Nam June Paik Award 2004, photo: Sascha Dressler

Since 2002, the Kunststiftung NRW has been acknowledging outstanding electronic and digital works of art with the renowned Nam June Paik Award. The criteria for the biannual award reflect the pioneering spirit of Paik: a daringness to experiment, bridging cultural gaps, and a transdisciplinary approach. The prize is awarded in two categories, the International and the National Nam June Paik Award.

LOOP is a platform dedicated to the study and promotion of the moving image. It offers a specialized audience a curated selection of video-related contents from challenging perspectives. While teaming up with an international community of artists, curators, gallerists, collectors, and institution directors to develop projects that aim at exploring the capacities of video and film in today’s contemporary art discourses, it also annually hosts LOOP Barcelona, a special meeting point that unfolds into three main sections.

2003-2004. The exhibition X-Screen (Expanded Screen) features film installations and documentary material (films, photographs, texts, drawings, and posters) by thirty-six Austrian and international artists. It shows how artists and filmmakers of the 1960s/70s transformed the traditional projection arrangement in cinemas by staging actions, multimedia shows, multiple projections, happenings, environments, and installations, and how they thus contributed to a new perception of media imagery, physical space, and the human body. With: VALIE EXPORT, Dan Graham, Birgit and Wilhelm Hein, Bruce Nauman.

At the beginning of 2004, the Museum commissions the agency 235 MEDIA to digitize/restore 34 tapes by 24 authors from the collection. The Ludwig Forum is the first German collection to conserve videotapes in cooperation with 235 MEDIA: the material is secured through thermal treatment, cleaning, copying onto a digital format, and the production of a digital version on DVD.

At the beginning of 2004, films, and not videotapes, from the holdings of the Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst are handed over to AK Media, Aachen. The film digitization is commissioned by the Ludwig Museum Budapest.

July 3 to September 12, 2004. In cooperation with the Cologne agency for media art 235 MEDIA, 30 exemplary works are eventually conserved digitally. This regained part of the collection is presented in an exhibition and provides insights into the technological and historical evolution of the medium of video and strategies for its presentation. The exhibition illustrates the complex technological working processes and the results. An exhibition catalogue is published.

The exhibition Video takes the video back to the monitor and makes it possible for the visitor to compare the new aesthetic visual language, irrespective of whether it is an art video, an advertising video, or a music clip. The exhibition begins with the 1980s, the decade when there is the first generation of “TV children,” private television is launched (in Germany), and in America (and later in Europe) the first station devoted solely to music begins broadcasting: MTV. With: Dara Birnbaum, Woody Vasulka, and Bill Viola.

Catalogue cover 40JAHREVIDEOKUNST.DE – Part 1. Digitales Erbe: Videokunst in Deutschland von 1963 bis heute, ed. by Rudolf Frieling and Wulf Herzogenrath, 2006

2004-2006. The initiative aims at saving, caring for, and spreading video art. Five museums are involved: the ZKM Karlsruhe, the K21 Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen Düsseldorf, the Kunsthalle Bremen, the Lenbachhaus Munich, and the Museum der bildenden Künste Leipzig. In 2004, a jury compiles an exemplary selection of contemporary works as well as fifty-nine historical videotapes from 1963 through to the present day, which are then exhibited at the five participating museums as an archive in 2006. Each museum additionally sets its own focus for complementing and contextualizing the videotapes. A catalogue is published that provides excerpts on DVD-ROM, along with a DVD study edition with all the works in full.

2004-2005. Dear ICC sets out to be an “informative exhibition.” Not only because the exhibitions at the ICC as such were always called that, but particularly because there is so much to tell. In the past few years, Johan Pas had sifted through the ICC archives for his doctoral thesis, and the MuHKA invited him to compose this exhibition on the basis of his findings. The title Dear ICC was taken from a letter from the performance artist Laurie Anderson that was found in the archives. With works and/or documents by Laurie Anderson, Jacques Charlier, Leo Copers, Michael Druks, and others.

Catalogue cover Ready to Shoot. Fernsehgalerie Gerry Schum. videogalerie schum, ed. by Ulrike Groos, Barbara Hess, and Ursula Wevers, 2003

The first retrospective on one of the most important and complex artistic projects of the late 1960s and early 1970s. Along with the first two “television exhibitions,” Land Art and Identifications, it collects and presents earlier documentary television productions by Schum as well as short television interventions and all the productions of the “videogalerie schum.”

View into the ZKM / Labor für antiquierte Videosysteme, photo: Andreas Friedrich

Founded in 2004, the Labor für antiquierte Videosysteme takes on the difficult task of preserving video art from the ZKM’s archives and its running projects and exhibitions. Possessing a large array of functioning historical equipment, coupled with state-of-the-art digital technology, the laboratory has been able to bring to life over fifty obsolete video formats from the 1960s through to the 1980s, to digitize them in high quality, and thus preserve them for posterity.

2006-2010. RECORD > AGAIN! is the follow-up project to – Teil 1. The institutions involved are the ZKM Medienmuseum, Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst in Aachen, the Kunsthaus Dresden – Städtische Galerie für Gegenwartskunst, and the Edith-Ruß-Haus für Medienkunst Oldenburg. The focus is on the early years of German video art. Because numerous works have not been shown for more than twenty-five years, older equipment has disappeared, and the videos were mostly unloadable, the works—totaling over twenty-five hours running time—were digitized at the Labor für antiquierte Videosysteme at the ZKM. Accompanying the exhibition is a publication with DVD as well as a DVD study edition with more than fifty video works from the last forty years.

In 2006, the non-profit foundation imai, intermedia art institute, is established for the purpose of recording the extensive collection of video art of the Cologne media agency 235 Media. The archive contains some 3,000 works of artistic and documentary value, which provide a broad overview of the development of video art from the pioneer years in the 1960s through to the present day. Since its founding, imai has conserved and appraised the works and organized distribution.

Catalogue cover Talking Pictures. Theatricality in Contemporary Film and Video Art, ed. by Doris Krystof and Barbara J. Scheuermann, 2007

The exhibition presents contemporary film and video works devoted to theater and its staging practices. They are often expansive and room-filling, almost arranged like stage settings, whereby other artistic materials such as sculptures, photos, or paper are integrated into the installations. With: Victor Alimpiev, Catherine Sullivan, and Ana Torfs.

The Julia Stoschek Collection is an international private collection of contemporary art with a focus on time-based media art. The collection opens in 2007 and comprises installations, videos, photographs, paintings, and sculptures. Each year a different exhibition presents, documents, and makes available to the public different aspects of the collection. Expanding the collection, as well as restoration and conservation work, are also central to the collection’s ongoing activities.

To date, the Museum has over 1,600 video works—an astounding collection that documents the history of this medium used in artistic practice from its beginning. In 2007, the first media conservator arrived at MoMA. In 2011, the Museum undertook a large-scale digitization effort focusing on the analogue videos. During the digitization project, each analogue video work in MoMA’s collection was migrated to a digital video file.

Catalogue cover Schweizer Videokunst der 1970er und 1980er Jahre. Eine Rekonstruktion, ed. by Irene Schubiger, 2009

The exhibition presents the beginnings of video art in Switzerland and how the various strands developed further until the end of the 1980s. Twenty video installations are shown that originally had often only featured for a few days in exhibition rooms, at trade fairs, or during festivals, as well as thirty videotapes. The exhibition is based on a collaboration with the research project AktiveArchive. A thoroughly researched history of Swiss video art has yet to be undertaken.

Catalogue cover video déjà vu? Die Anfänge der Videokunst im Spiegel der Sammlung, ed. by Sylvia Martin on behalf of Kunstmuseen Krefeld, 2008

The exhibition shows the results of the cleaning, restoration, and conservation project for video works from the collection, some of which have not been shown in thirty years. In the 1970s, the Krefeld museums were among the first in Germany to recognize the potential of video art and give it a platform. The collection was compiled by the pioneers Gerry Schum and Ursula Wevers. The Kunstmuseum possesses an extensive collection of video and film art on Super 8, 16mm, half-inch open-reel tapes, U-matic, VHS cassettes, and DVDs. A selection of twenty-five German and American works are shown, by Vito Acconi, Peter Campus, Gilbert & George, and others.

Exhibition view Videoarchiv, 2009, Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, photo: Carl Brunn

September 19, 2009 to January 17, 2010. Complementing the exhibition RECORD>AGAIN!, classic works from the video collection of the Ludwig Forum are shown, prominent exponents of various approaches from the 1970s, ranging from Bruce Nauman to Nam June Paik. The quality and range of the works in the collection is due to the pioneering activities of the Neue Galerie. Since its founding in 1970, the predecessor to the Ludwig Forum had presented and archived video works. The exhibition is a further step in bringing the collection’s holdings to the public.

Catalogue cover RECORD > AGAIN! 40JAHREVIDEOKUNST.DE – Part 2, ed. by Christoph Blase and Peter Weibel, 2010

September 19 to November 15, 2009. The ZKM exhibition continues the project initiated in 2006 on the technological updating and scholarly appraisal of video art. More than sixty video works from the early years of video art are restored, reconstructed, and digitized, before being presented in the large exhibition using original equipment. Thirty-two works from the Ludwig Forum’s video collection are part of the project, some of which are then shown in the exhibition.

Catalogue cover Transitland. Video Art from Central and Eastern Europe 1989–2009, ed. by Edit András, 2009

The collaborative archiving project “Transitland,” realized on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall, launches with a comprehensive website and a series of discussions and screenings in Sofia, followed by events in Budapest and Berlin. It presents a selection of 100 single-channel video works, produced in the period 1989–2009 and reflecting the transformations in post-socialist Central and Eastern Europe. The selection of works was made by an international jury from 350 videos, proposed by 40 nominators—curators, art critics, and artists.

Catalogue cover Bilder in Bewegung – Künstler & Video/Film 1958–2010, ed. by Barbara Engelbach, 2010

A presentation from the collection of artist films and videos as well as installations from the Museum Ludwig, Cologne: ranging from films acquired as early as 1974, including works by Bruce Nauman, Richard Serra, and Ed Ruscha, and videos by Nam June Paik and Gerry Schum’s television gallery, through to installations by Aernout Mik and Guy Ben-Ner, the exhibition traces the history of the moving image in contemporary art.

Exhibition view Nie wieder störungsfrei, 2011, Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, photo: Carl Brunn

October 22, 2011 – February 5, 2012. The presentation of more than 150 artworks and plenty of documents brought the visitor back to exciting events on Aachen’s cultural scene. Institutions such as Galerie Aachen, Gegenverkehr – Zentrum für aktuelle Kunst, and the Neue Galerie im Alten Kurhaus became internationally known catalysts for the art tendencies that today shape our concepts of art—Fluxus, performance art, conceptual art, new forms of photography, film, music, and literature, Pop Art, and the many forms of realism that emerged in the 1970s. The exhibition featured a video art section that presented a selection of tapes from the collection of the Ludwig Forum. A catalogue was published.

Catalogue cover Big Picture (Locations/Projections). Twelve cinematographic installations, ed. by Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Düsseldorf, 2011

Big Picture is the title of a work by Jason Rhoades, a Californian artist who died young in 2006. In an ironic reversal of the title, it shows a large garden on a small flat screen. This lavishly illustrated catalogue presents twelve film and video installations by international artists, each of whom takes a different approach to the cinematographic installation as a genre. The focus is on the importance of space to film and video art installations, which as media art have to redefine their performance parameters at each new presentation.

Exhibition view Videozone: Deimantas Narcevičius, 2012, Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, photo: Carl Brunn

August 25, 2012 to October 28, 2012. Within the context of the “Videoarchiv” project funded by the Volkswagen Stiftung, the exhibition series “Videozone” highlights at regular intervals positions in contemporary video art. The Lithuanian artist Deimantas Narkevičius looks at Soviet postwar history in his video and film works. Ausgeträumt, the work chosen to open the exhibition series, focuses on five young Lithuanian musicians performing under the name Without Letters.

The research project “Videoarchiv,” financed by the Volkswagen Stiftung as part of the initiative “Forschung in Museen,” is devoted to analyzing and presenting the Ludwig Forum’s historical video collection (previously that of the Neue Galerie). The collection encompasses ca. 200 significant, in part high-quality video works that are international in orientation. In cooperation with the ZKM Karlsruhe, they are digitized and are now accessible for scholarly interpretation.

Exhibition view Videozone: Artur Żmijewski, 2012, Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, photo: Carl Brunn

November 10, 2012 to February 17, 2013. Within the context of the “Videoarchiv” project funded by the Volkswagen Stiftung, the exhibition series “Videozone” highlights at regular intervals positions in contemporary video art. The three films and audio piece making up the exhibition Blindly confront visitors with the otherness of people with various impairments.

Catalogue cover Images against Darkness – Video Art from the Archive of imai at KIT, ed. by KIT – Kunst im Tunnel, Kunsthalle Düsseldorf gGmbH, imai – inter media art institute, No. 2, 2012

The exhibition shows for the first time a representative selection of video art from the imai archive. The imai was founded six years before for the purpose of re-recording and digitizing the extensive video art collection of the Cologne media agency 235 Media. Since then, the archive has preserved the works and complemented existing holdings with new pieces. In cooperation with the KIT, the exhibition provides a glimpse into the imai archive.

Since the 1970s, Belgian video art has been internationally known for its avant-gardism, its eclecticism, and its multiple crossovers with other disciplines. In the past, but incontrovertibly also in the present time, Belgian artists have been pioneers in the use of the medium and the development of multifaceted registers thanks to the video techniques and their personal approaches. Although this selection represents only a small cross-section among thousands of titles archived at Argos, these programs try to illustrate recurrent aspects of the productions released during the 1970s and 80s. With: Jacques Charlier, Filip Francis, and Jacques-Louis Nyst.

Catalogue cover REWIND | British Artists’ Video in the 1970s & 1980s, ed. by Sean Cubitt and Stephen Partridge, 2012

The publication derives from a four-year research project into the history of an art form that has become the hallmark of contemporary art. It is the founding text for the history of British video art; draws on a unique archive of oral history and personal experience; and opens up the archive for contemporary artists, curators, media historians, and archivists.

Catalogue cover Vidéo Vintage 1963–1983. Une selection de vidéos des collections nouveaux médias du Musée National d’Art Moderne Centre Pompidou, ed. by Centre Pompidou, Paris, 2012

2012-2013. Based on a selection of popular video works, the exhibition shows the evolution of video art from the 1960s through to the 1980s in cooperation with the Centre Pompidou. Attracting particular interest are the three focal points “Performance and Filmic Self-Portrait,” “Television: Research, Experiments, Critique,” and “Attitudes, Forms, Concepts,” which reveal the development phases video has passed through, its artistic applications, “research” character, and critical potential.

Exhibition view Videoarchiv: Die Amerikaner, 2013, Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, photo: Carl Brunn

March 17, 2013 to October 26, 2014. The Videoarchiv exhibition series accompanies the research project of the same name, documents the results of the research, and experiments with different presentation forms. Die Amerikaner shows a selection of American video works from the archive, providing an insight into the historical early phase of American video art. An exhibition catalogue is published.

Exhibition view Videozone: Wael Shawky, 2013, Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, photo: Carl Brunn

November 23, 2013 to January 26, 2014. Within the context of the “Videoarchiv” project funded by the Volkswagen Stiftung, the exhibition series “Videozone” highlights at regular intervals positions in contemporary video art. In his video works, the Egyptian artist Wael Shawky focuses on the framing of historical and political events, exploring the interpretative spaces constructed for presenting history. The work Cabaret Crusades: The Horror Show Files (2010) is the first part of a trilogy. Drawing on Amin Maalouf’s non-fictional narrative The Crusades through Arab Eyes, Shawky examines the history of the Crusades from an Arab perspective.

Exhibition view Videoarchiv: Painting Electronical Images, 2014, Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, photo: Carl Brunn

April 13, 2014 to August 30, 2015. The Videoarchiv exhibition series accompanies the research project of the same name, documents the results of the research, and experiments with different presentation forms. Elektronische Bilder malen shows positions from the first decade of video art, characterized by experimenting with the interrelationship between the mediums. Some of these works are made like painted pictures, engaging with formal-compositional elements, and others take pictures as their subject matter, critically analyzing or caricaturing art history. An exhibition catalogue is published.

Exhibition view Videozone: Almagul Menlibayeva, 2014, Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, photo: Carl Brunn

November 16, 2014 to February 22, 2015. Within the context of the “Videoarchiv” project funded by the Volkswagen Stiftung, the exhibition series “Videozone” highlights at regular intervals positions in contemporary video art. Here three films are shown by the Kazakhstani artist Almagul Menlibayeva: Kissing Totems (2008), Exodus (2009), and Transoxiana Dreams (2011). Alternating between dream and reality, they show us a vision of the artist’s home country, which is trying to position itself between past and present.

Invitation to/announcement of the conference Video Matters at the Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, 2015

September 24–25, 2015. A conference with experts from Europe and the USA on the current challenges posed by documenting, caring for, and presenting time-based media art. The interest museums and other institutions responsible for cultural heritage have shown in time-based art over recent decades is paralleled by technical changes and technological obsolescence, factors confronting collections with fundamental questions. Digital archiving strongly influences how we deal with video and other media. How threatened works can best be preserved is the subject of controversy, along with which presentation forms are most suitable, the spectrum ranging from reconstruction through to a completely new reenactment. The conference wraps up the first phase of the research project by putting up for discussion the main questions for research and project work. A documentation of the individual talks given can be found on this website.

Exhibition view Videoarchiv: Facing the Camera, 2015, Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst; photo: Carl Brunn

September 20, 2015 to May 1, 2016. The Videoarchiv exhibition series accompanies the research project of the same name, documents the results of the research, and experiments with different presentation forms. The third exhibition of the series probes how early video, specifically in relation to performance, was a means of documentation and distribution, but also a genuinely creative artistic medium. A performance in front of the camera can become a performance for the camera and with the camera; video as a work tool turns into video as an artwork, a performance video into a video performance. An exhibition catalogue is published.

Exhibition view Videozone: Eric Baudelaire, 2015, Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, photo: Carl Brunn

September 20, 2015 to November 22, 2015. The Ugly One (2013) is a story and documentary at the same time—about love, remembering, and forgetting, and about Beirut, a city marked by decades of civil war. The Japanese filmmaker Masao Adachi, a left-wing extremist once active in Lebanon as a member of the Japanese Red Army, wrote a first screenplay version, intentionally making it unfilmable, which the French artist Eric Baudelaire then constantly adjusts during the shooting. Interwoven with Adachi’s memories, a political narrative emerges that blurs the distinction between fact and fiction as well as between times and generations, while at the same time setting them in confrontation.

Derived from the AHRC-funded research project “REWINDItalia,” the publication aims to bring the seminal Italian early video experimentation back into the international spotlight. Italy was a vibrant center of video art production and exhibition throughout the 1970s and 80s. This early experimentation attracted artists from all over the world and laid the foundation for video art. However, since then, early Italian video art has received only scant international exposure. Its contribution to the history of video as an art form has for too long escaped the recognition that it so unequivocally deserves.